Keil and Delitzsch Commentary - Hosea 10:14 - 10:14

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Keil and Delitzsch Commentary - Hosea 10:14 - 10:14

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“And tumult will arise against thy peoples, and all thy fortifications are laid waste, as Shalman laid Beth-Arbeel waste in the day of the war: mother and children are dashed to pieces. Hos 10:15. Thus hath Bethel done to you because of the wickedness of your wickedness: in the morning dawn the king of Israel is cut off, cut off.” קאם with א as mater lect. (Ewald, §15, e), construed with ב: to rise up against a person, as in Psa 27:12; Job 16:8. שָׁאֹון, war, tumult, as in Amo 2:2. בְּעַמֶּיךָ: against thy people of war. The expression is chosen with a reference to rōbh gibbōrı̄m (the multitude of mighty men), in which Israel put its trust. The meaning, countrymen, or tribes, is restricted to the older language of the Pentateuch. The singular יוּשַּׁד refers to כֹּל, as in Isa 64:10, contrary to the ordinary language (cf. Ewald, §317, c). Nothing is known concerning the devastation of Beth-Arbeel by Shalman; and hence there has always been great uncertainty as to the meaning of the words. Shalman is no doubt a contracted form of Shalmanezer, the king of Assyria, who destroyed the kingdom of the ten tribes (2Ki 17:6). Bēth-'arbē'l is hardly Arbela of Assyria, which became celebrated through the victory of Alexander (Strab. Isa 16:1, Isa 16:3), since the Israelites could scarcely have become so well acquainted with such a remote city, as that the prophet could hold up the desolation that befel it as an example to them, but in all probability the Arbela in Galilaea Superior, which is mentioned in 1 Maccabees 9:2, and very frequently in Josephus, a place in the tribe of Naphtali, between Sephoris and Tiberias (according to Robinson, Pal. iii. pp. 281-2, and Bibl. Researches, p. 343: the modern Irbid). The objection offered by Hitzig, - viz. that shōd is a noun in Hos 9:6; Hos 7:13; Hos 12:2, and that the infinitive construct, with ל prefixed, is written לִשְׁדֹד in Jer 47:4; and lastly, that if Shalman were the subject, we should expect the preposition אֵת before בֵּית, - is not conclusive, and the attempt which he makes to explain Salman-Beth-Arbel from the Sanscrit is not worth mentioning. The clause “mother and children,” etc., a proverbial expression denoting inhuman cruelty (see at Gen 32:12), does not merely refer to the conduct of Shalman in connection with Beth-arbel, possibly in the campaign mentioned in 2Ki 17:3, but is also intended to indicate the fate with which the whole of the kingdom of Israel was threatened. In 2Ki 17:16 this threat concludes with an announcement of the overthrow of the monarchy, accompanied by another allusion to the guilt of the people. The subject to כָּכָה עָשָׂה is Beth-el (Chald.), not Shalman or Jehovah. Bethel, the seat of the idolatry, prepares this lot for the people on account of its great wickedness. עָשָׂה is a perf. proph.' and רָעַת רָעַתְכֶם, wickedness in its second potency, extreme wickedness (cf. Ewald, §313, c). Basshachar, in the morning-dawn, i.e., at the time when prosperity is once more apparently about to dawn, tempore pacis alluscente (Cocc., Hgst.). The gerund נִדְמֹה adds to the force; and מֶלֶךְ ישׂ is not this or the other king, but as in 2Ki 17:7, the king generally, i.e., the monarchy of Israel.