Better, be ready. Once in Paul, 1Th 5:3. Frequent in Luke and Acts. Lit. stand by, be at hand, be present. To come suddenly upon, Luk 2:38. Hence, be ready. Instant signifies urgent, importunate, persevering. Lat. instare to press upon. Thus Latimer, “I preached at the instant request of a curate.” So N.T., Rom 12:12, “Continuing instant in prayer.”
In season (εὐκαίρως)
Only here and Mar 14:11. lxx once, Sir. 18:22. Comp. ἀκαιρεῖσθαι to have leisure or opportunity, Mar 6:31; 1Co 16:12 : εὐκαιρία opportunity, Mat 26:16 : εὔκαιρος seasonable, convenient, Mar 6:21; Heb 4:16.
Out of season (ἀκαίρως)
N.T.o. lxx once, Sir. 35:4. Comp. ἀκαιρεῖσθαι to lack opportunity, Phi 4:10. Timothy is not advised to disregard opportuneness, but to discharge his duty to those with whom he deals, whether it be welcome or not.
Rather, convict of their errors. See on 1Ti 5:20 and Joh 3:20. In Paul, 1Co 14:24; Eph 5:11, Eph 5:13. Comp. ἐλεγμόν conviction, 2Ti 3:16.
In Pastorals only here. oP. Mostly in the Synoptic Gospels, where it is frequent. It has two meanings: rebuke, as Mat 8:26; Luk 17:3, and charge, as Mat 12:16; Mat 16:20, commonly followed by ἵνα that or λέγων saying (Mat 20:31; Mar 1:25; Mar 3:12; Mar 8:30; Luk 4:35), but see Luk 9:21. The word implies a sharp, severe rebuke, with, possibly, a suggestion in some cases of impending penalty (τιμή); charge on pain of. This might go to justify the rendering of Holtzmann and von Soden, threaten. To charge on pain of penalty for disobedience implies a menace, in this case of future judgment.
See on consolation, Luk 6:24; see on comfort, Act 9:31. Tischendorf changes the order of the three imperatives, reading ἔλεγξον, παρακάλεσον, ἐπιτίμησον. In that case there is a climax: first convict of error, then, exhort to forsake error, finally threaten with the penalty of persistence in error.
With all longsuffering and doctrine (ἐν πασῃ μακροθυμίᾳ)
Πάσῃ, every possible exhibition of longsuffering, etc. For doctrine rend. teaching. The combination is suggestive. Longsuffering is to be maintained against the temptations to anger presented by the obstinacy and perverseness of certain hearers; and such are to be met, not merely with rebuke, but also with sound and reasonable instruction in the truth. So Calvin: “Those who are strong only in fervor and sharpness, but are not fortified with solid doctrine, weary themselves in their vigorous efforts, make a great noise, rave,... make no headway because they build without foundation.” Men will not be won to the truth by scolding. “They should understand what they hear, and learn by perceive why they are rebuked” (Bahnsen). Διδαχή teaching, only here and Tit 1:9 in Pastorals. The usual word is διδασκαλία. Paul uses both.