Vincent Word Studies - John 1:19 - 1:19

Online Resource Library

Commentary Index | Return to

Vincent Word Studies - John 1:19 - 1:19

(Show All Books | Show All Chapters)

This Chapter Verse Commentaries:

This (αὕτη)

The following. This use of the pronoun, calling the reader's attention to what follows, and preparing him for it, is frequent in John. Sometimes the pronoun carries the sense of quality: of this character. See Joh 3:19; Joh 15:12; 1Jo 5:4, 1Jo 5:9, 1Jo 5:11, 1Jo 5:14.

Witness (μαρτυρία)

Testimony. See on Joh 1:7, and 1Pe 5:1.


See on Joh 1:6. Note the article: the John previously mentioned.

The Jews (οἱ Ἱοὐδαῖοι)

This is a characteristic word in John. It occurs more than fifty times in his Gospel as his own expression, while there are six instances of the formula King of the Jews used by Gentiles. In the Synoptic Gospels, on the other hand, to twelve instances of King of the Jews, there are but four passages in which the word Jews occurs. In Paul's writings it is comparatively rare, mostly in contrast with Greek, and both in contrast with Christianity. In Revelation it is found twice (Rev 2:9; Rev 3:9), of those who say they are Jews and are not, but are “of the synagogue of Satan” and “do lie.”

John, in the Gospel, distinguishes between the multitude (ὁ ὄχλος) and the Jews (Ἱουδαῖοι). By the former he means the aggregate of the Jewish inhabitants of Palestine, the mass of the people, chiefly Galilaeans; by the latter, more particularly Judaeans, the leaders of Judaism in opposition to Jesus. The multitude are unsettled in conviction, inquisitive, despised by the Pharisees, inclined to listen to Jesus and to believe; moved by an impulse to make Him a king, escorting Him triumphantly into Jerusalem, and not appearing in the narrative of the trial and crucifixion. The Jews are tenacious of the expectation of a national Messiah. They represent the narrow, sectarian aspect of Judaism; they are the instigators and leaders of the opposition to Jesus, and to them His crucifixion is attributed. John uses the word where the other Evangelists speak of the opposers of Christ as Pharisees, Sadducees, elders, chief-priests, scribes, or lawyers. He recognizes the distinction between Pharisee and Sadducee, and though he does not mention the latter by name, he characterizes them by their position. Jesus is the key to the sense in which John employs the term Jews. He regards them in their relation to Him. The idea underlying the word is habitually that of separation from the character and privileges of a true Israelite through their rejection of Jesus.

Sent (ἀπέστειλαν)

As a deputation. See on Joh 1:6.

Priests and Levites

Representing the ecclesiastical element of the nation; the two classes employed in the temple service. See Jos 3:3; 2Ch 30:27; Eze 44:15. The combination occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. These deputies probably came from the Sanhedrim.

To ask (ἵνα ἐρωτήσωσιν)

Literally, in order that they should ask. See on Mat 15:23.

Who art thou (σὺ τίς εἶ)

Literally, thou, who art thou?