A title conferred, since the time of Augustus, upon provincial governors. Probably, however, not used by the Jews in this technical sense, but merely as a way of saying “Thou art not true to the emperor.”
Caesar (τῷ Καίσαρι)
Literally, the Caesar. The term, which was at first a proper name, the surname of Julius Caesar, adopted by Augustus and his successors, became an appellative, appropriated by all the emperors as a title. Thus the emperor at this time was Tiberius Caesar. A distinction was, however, introduced between this title and that of Augustus, which was first given to Octavianus the first emperor. The title “Augustus” was always reserved for the monarch, while “Caesar” was more freely communicated to his relations; and from the reign of Hadrian at least (a.d. 117-138) was appropriated to the second person in the state, who was considered as the presumptive heir of the empire.