He was numbered (sunkatepsēphisthē). To the Jews the lot did not suggest gambling, but “the O.T. method of learning the will of Jehovah” (Furneaux). The two nominations made a decision necessary and they appealed to God in this way. This double compound sunkatapsēphizō occurs here alone in the N.T. and elsewhere only in Plutarch (Them. 21) in the middle voice for condemning with others. Sunpsēphizō occurs in the middle voice in Act 19:19 for counting up money and also in Aristophanes. Psēphizō with dapanēn occurs in Luk 14:28 for counting the cost and in Rev 13:18 for “counting” the number of the beast. The ancients used pebbles (psēphoi) in voting, black for condemning, white (Rev 2:17) in acquitting. Here it is used in much the same sense as katarithmeō in Act 1:17.