And yet (kaitoi). Old Greek compound particle (kai toi). In the N.T. twice only, once with finite verb as here, once with the participle (Heb 4:3).
Without witness (amarturon). Old adjective (a privative and martus, witness), only here in the N.T.
Left (aphēken). First aorist active (k aorist indicative of aphiēmi).
In that he did good (agathourgōn). Present active causal participle of agathourgeō, late and rare verb (also agathoergeō 1Ti 6:18), reading of the oldest MSS. here for agathopoieō, to do good. Note two other causal participles here parallel with agathourgōn, viz., didous (“giving you”) present active of didōmi, empiplōn (“filling”) present active of empimplaō (late form of empimplēmi). This witness to God (his doing good, giving rains and fruitful seasons, filling your hearts with food and gladness) they could receive without the help of the Old Testament revelation (Rom 1:20). Zeus was regarded as the god of rain (Jupiter Pluvius) and Paul claims the rain and the fruitful (karpophorous, karpos, and pherō, fruit bearing, old word, here alone in N.T.) seasons as coming from God. Lycaonia was often dry and it would be an appropriate item. “Mercury, as the God of merchandise, was also the dispenser of food” (Vincent). Paul does not talk about laws of nature as if they governed themselves, but he sees the living God “behind the drama of the physical world” (Furneaux). These simple country people could grasp his ideas as he claims everything for the one true God.
Gladness (euphrosunēs). Old word from euphrōn (eu and phrēn), good cheer. In the N.T. only Act 2:28 and here. Cheerfulness should be our normal attitude when we consider God’s goodness. Paul does not here mention Christ because he had the single definite purpose to dissuade them from worshipping Barnabas and himself.