That were disobedient (hoi apeithēsantes). First aorist active articular participle, not the present apeithountes as the Textus Receptus has it. But the meaning is probably the Jews that disbelieved, rather than that disobeyed. Strictly apeitheō does mean to disobey and apisteō to disbelieve, but that distinction is not observed in Joh 3:36 nor in Act 19:9; Act 28:24. The word apeitheō means to be apeithēs, to be unwilling to be persuaded or to withhold belief and then also to withhold obedience. The two meanings run into one another. To disbelieve the word of God is to disobey God.
Made them evil affected (ekakōsan). First aorist active indicative of kakoō, old verb from kakos, to do evil to, to ill-treat, then in later Greek as here to embitter, to exasperate as in Psa 105:32 and in Josephus. In this sense only here in the N.T. Evidently Paul preached the same message as in Antioch for it won both Jews and Gentiles, and displeased the rabbis. Codex Bezae adds here that “the chiefs of the synagogue and the rulers” brought persecution upon Paul and Barnabas just as was argued about Antioch. Outside the synagogue the Jews would poison the minds of the Gentiles against Paul and Barnabas. “The story of Thecla suggests a means, and perhaps the apostles were brought before the magistrates on some charge of interference with family life. The magistrates however must have seen at once that there was no legal case against them; and by a sentence of acquittal or in some other way the Lord gave peace” (Rackham). As we have it, the story of Paul and Thecla undoubtedly has apocryphal features, though Thecla may very well be an historical character here at Iconium where the story is located. Certainly the picture of Paul herein drawn cannot be considered authentic though a true tradition may underlie it: “bald, bowlegged, strongly built, small in stature, with large eyes and meeting eyebrows and longish nose; full of grace; sometimes looking like a man, sometimes having the face of an angel.”