The captain of the temple (ho stratēgos tou hierou). Twenty-four bands of Levites guarded the temple, one guard at a time. They watched the gates. The commander of each band was called captain (stratēgos). Josephus names this captain of the temple police next to the high priest (War. VI. 5, 3).
The Sadducees (hoi Saddoukaioi). Most of the priests were Sadducees now and all the chief priests since John Hyrcanus I deserted the Pharisees (Josephus, Ant. XVII. 10, 6; XVIII. 1, 4; XX. 9, 1). The Sadducees were slow to line up with the Pharisees against Jesus, but they now take the lead against Peter and John.
Came upon them (epestēsan autois). Second aorist active indicative (intransitive). Burst upon them suddenly or stood by them in a hostile attitude here (Luk 20:1; Luk 24:4; Act 6:12; Act 17:5; Act 22:20; Act 23:11).