History of the Christian Church: Contents

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History of the Christian Church: Contents

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Philip Schaff

Christianus sum: Christiani nihil a me alienus puto.


Volume 1: Apostolic Christianity, a.d. 1-100

Prefaces to Volume 1

General Introduction

'a7 1. Nature of Church History

'a7 2. Branches of Church History

'a7 3. Sources of Church History

'a7 4. Periods of Church History

'a7 5. Uses of Church History

'a7 6. Duty of the Historian

'a7 7. Literature of Church History

From the Birth of Christ to the Death of St. John, a.d. 1-100

Chapter I: Preparation for Christianity in the History of the Jewish and Heathen World.

'a7 8. Central Position of Christ in the History of the World

'a7 9. Judaism

'a7 10. The Law, and the Prophecy

'a7 11. Heathenism

'a7 12. Grecian Literature, and the Roman Empire

'a7 13. Judaism and Heathenism in Contact

Chapter II: Jesus Christ

'a7 14. Sources and Literature

'a7 15. The Founder of Christianity

'a7 16. Chronology of the Life of Christ

'a7 17. The Land and the People

'a7 18. Apocryphal Tradition

'a7 19. The Resurrection of Christ

Chapter III: The Apostolic Age

'a7 20. Sources and Literature of the Apostolic Age

'a7 21. General Character of the Apostolic Age

'a7 22. The Critical Reconstruction of the History of the Apostolic Age

'a7 23. Chronology of the Apostolic Age

Chapter IV: St. Peter and the Conversion of the Jews

'a7 24. The Miracle of Pentecost and the Birthday of the Christian Church. a.d. 30

'a7 25. The Church of Jerusalem and the Labors of Peter

'a7 26. The Peter of History and the Peter of Fiction

'a7 27. James the Brother of the Lord

'a7 28. Preparation for the Mission to the Gentiles

Chapter V: St. Paul and the Conversion of the Gentiles

'a7 29. Sources and Literature on St. Paul and his Work

'a7 30. Paul before his Conversion

'a7 31. The Conversion of Paul

'a7 32. The Work of Paul

'a7 33. Paul’s Missionary Labors

'a7 34. The Synod of Jerusalem, and the Compromise between Jewish and Gentile Christianity

'a7 35. The Conservative Reaction, and the Liberal Victory - Peter and Paul at Antioch

'a7 36. Christianity in Rome

Chapter VI: The Great Tribulation. (Mat_21:21.)

'a7 37. The Roman Conflagration and the Neronian Persecution

'a7 38. The Jewish War and the Destruction of Jerusalem. a.d. 70

'a7 39. Effects of the Destruction of Jerusalem on the Christian Church

Chapter VII: St. John, and the Last Stadium of the Apostolic Period. The Consolidation of Jewish and Gentile Christianity.

'a7 40. The Johannean Literature

'a7 41. Life and Character of John

'a7 42. Apostolic Labors of John

'a7 43. Traditions Respecting John

Chapter VIII: Christian Life in the Apostolic Church

'a7 44. The Power of Christianity

'a7 45. The Spiritual Gifts

'a7 46. Christianity in Individuals

'a7 47. Christianity and the Family

'a7 48. Christianity and Slavery

'a7 49. Christianity and Society

'a7 50. Spiritual Condition of the Congregations. - The Seven Churches in Asia

Chapter IX: Worship in the Apostolic Age

'a7 51. The Synagogue

'a7 52. Christian Worship

'a7 53. The Several Parts of Worship

'a7 54. Baptism

'a7 55. The Lord’s Supper

'a7 56. Sacred Places

'a7 57. Sacred Times - The Lord’s Day

Chapter X: Organization of the Apostolic Church

'a7 58. Literature

'a7 59. The Christian Ministry, and its Relation to the Christian Community

'a7 60. Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists

'a7 61. Presbyters or Bishops. The Angels of the Seven Churches. James of Jerusalem

'a7 62. Deacons and Deaconesses

'a7 63. Church Discipline

'a7 64. The Council at Jerusalem

'a7 65. The Church and the Kingdom of Christ

Chapter XI: Theology of the Apostolic Church

'a7 66. Literature

'a7 67. Unity of Apostolic Teaching

'a7 68. Different Types of Apostolic Teaching

'a7 69. The Jewish Christian Theology - I. James and the Gospel of Law

'a7 70. II. Peter and the Gospel of Hope

'a7 71. The Gentile Christian Theology. Paul and the Gospel of Faith

'a7 72. John and the Gospel of Love

'a7 73. Heretical Perversions of the Apostolic Teaching

Chapter XII: The New Testament

'a7 74. Literature

'a7 75. Rise of the Apostolic Literature

'a7 76. Character of the New Testament

'a7 77. Literature on the Gospels

'a7 78. The Four Gospels

'a7 79. The Synoptists

'a7 80. Matthew

'a7 81. Mark

'a7 82. Luke

'a7 83. John

'a7 84. Critical Review of the Johannean Problem

'a7 85. The Acts of the Apostles

'a7 86. The Epistles

'a7 87. The Catholic Epistles

'a7 88. The Epistles of Paul

'a7 89. The Epistles to the Thessalonians

'a7 90. The Epistles to the Corinthians

'a7 91. The Epistles to the Galatians

'a7 92. The Epistle to the Romans

'a7 93. The Epistles of the Captivity

'a7 94. The Epistle to the Colossians

'a7 95. The Epistle to the Ephesians

'a7 96. Colossians and Ephesians Compared and Vindicated

'a7 97. The Epistle to the Philippians

'a7 98. The Epistle to Philemon

'a7 99. The Pastoral Epistles

'a7 100. The Epistle to the Hebrews

'a7 101. The Apocalypse

'a7 102. Concluding Reflections. Faith and Criticism

Volume 2: Ante-Nicene Christianity a.d. 100-325

Prefaces to Volume 2


'a7 1. General Literature on the Ante-Nicene Age

'a7 2. General Character of Ante-Nicene Christianity

Chapter I: Spread of Christianity

'a7 3. Literature

'a7 4. Hindrances and Helps

'a7 5. Causes of the Success of Christianity

'a7 6. Means of Propagation

'a7 7. Extent of Christianity in the Roman Empire

'a7 8. Christianity in Asia

'a7 9. Christianity in Egypt

'a7 10. Christianity in North Africa

'a7 11. Christianity in Europe

Chapter II: Persecution of Christianity and Christian Martyrdom

'a7 12. Literature

'a7 13. General Survey

'a7 14. Jewish Persecution

'a7 15. Causes of Roman Persecution

'a7 16. Condition of the Church Before the Reign of Trajan

'a7 17. The Reign of Trajan. a.d. 98-117. Martyrdom of Ignatius

'a7 18. Hadrian. a.d. 117-137

'a7 19. Antoninus Pius. a.d. 137-161. Martyrdom of Polycarp

'a7 20. Persecutions under Marcus Aurelius. a.d. 161-180

'a7 21. From Septimius Severus to Philip the Arabian. a.d. 193-249

'a7 22. Persecutions under Decius and Valerian. a.d. 249-260. Martyrdom of Cyprian

'a7 23. Temporary Repose. a.d. 260-303

'a7 24. The Diocletian Persecution. a.d. 303-311

'a7 25. The Edicts of Toleration. a.d. 311-313

'a7 26. Christian Martyrdom

'a7 27. Rise of the Worship of Martyrs and Relics

Chapter III: Literary Contest of Christianity With Judaism and Heathenism

'a7 28. Literature

'a7 29. Literary Opposition to Christianity

'a7 30. Jewish Opposition. Josephus and the Talmud

'a7 31. Pagan Opposition. Tacitus and Pliny

'a7 32. Direct Assaults. Celsus

'a7 33. Lucian

'a7 34. Neo-Platonism

'a7 35. Porphyry and Hierocles

'a7 36. Summary of the Objections to Christianity

'a7 37. The Apologetic Literature of Christianity

'a7 38. The Argument against Judaism

'a7 39. The Argument against Heathenism

'a7 40. The Positive Apology

Chapter IV: Organization and Discipline of the Church

'a7 41. Progress in Consolidation

'a7 42. Clergy and Laity

'a7 43. New Church Officers

'a7 44. Origin of the Episcopate

'a7 45. Development of the Episcopate. Ignatius

'a7 46. Episcopacy at the Time of Irenaeus and Tertullian

'a7 47. Cyprianic Episcopacy

'a7 48. The Pseudo-Clementine Episcopacy

'a7 49. Beginnings of the Metropolitan and Patriarchal Systems

'a7 50. Germs of the Papacy

'a7 51. Chronology of the Popes

'a7 52. List of the Roman Bishops and Roman Emperors during the First Three Centuries

'a7 53. The Catholic Unity

'a7 54. Councils

'a7 55. The Councils of Elvira, Arles, and Ancyra

'a7 56. Collections of Ecclesiastical Law. The Apostolic Constitutions and Canons

'a7 57. Church Discipline

'a7 58. Church Schisms

Chapter V: Christian Worship

'a7 59. Places of Common Worship

'a7 60. The Lord’s Day

'a7 61. The Christian Passover (Easter)

'a7 62. The Paschal Controversies

'a7 63. Pentecost

'a7 64. Epiphany

'a7 65. The Order of Public Worship

'a7 66. Parts of Worship. Reading of Scriptures. Sermons. Prayers. Hymns

'a7 67. The Division of Divine Service. The Disciplina Arcani

'a7 68. The Celebration of the Eucharist

'a7 69. The Doctrine of the Eucharist

'a7 70. The Celebration of Baptism

'a7 71. The Doctrine of Baptism

'a7 72. Catechetical Instruction and Confirmation

'a7 73. Infant Baptism

'a7 74. Heretical Baptism

Chapter VI: Beginnings of Christian Art

'a7 75. Literature

'a7 76. Origin of Christian Art

'a7 77. The Cross and the Crucifix

'a7 78. Other Christian Symbols

'a7 79. Historical and Allegorical Pictures

'a7 80. Allegorical Representations of Christ

'a7 81. Pictures of the Virgin Mary

Chapter VII: The Church in the Catacombs

'a7 82. Literature

'a7 83. Origin and History of the Catacombs

'a7 84. Description of the Catacombs

'a7 85. Pictures and Sculptures

'a7 86. Epitaphs

'a7 87. Lessons of the Catacombs

Chapter VIII: The Christian Life in Contrast with Pagan Corruption

'a7 88. Literature

'a7 89. Moral Corruption in the Roman Empire

'a7 90. Stoic Morality

'a7 91. Epictetus

'a7 92. Marcus Aurelius

'a7 93. Plutarch

'a7 94. Christian Morality

'a7 95. The Church and Public Amusements

'a7 96. Secular Callings and Civil Duties

'a7 97. The Church and Slavery

'a7 98. The Heathen Family

'a7 99. The Christian Family

'a7 100. Brotherly Love and Love for Enemies

'a7 101. Prayer and Fasting

'a7 102. Treatment of the Dead

'a7 103. Summary of Moral Reforms

Chapter IX: Ascetic Tendencies

'a7 104. Ascetic Virtue and Piety

'a7 105. Heretical and Catholic Asceticism

'a7 106. Voluntary Poverty

'a7 107. Voluntary Celibacy

'a7 108. Celibacy of the Clergy

Chapter X: Montanism

'a7 109. Literature

'a7 110. External History of Montanism

'a7 111. Character and Tenets of Montanism

Chapter XI: The Heresies of the Ante-Nicene Age

'a7 112. Judaism and Heathenism within the Church

'a7 113. Nazarenes and Ebionites. (Elkesaites, Mandaeans.)

'a7 114. The Pseudo-Clementine Ebionism

'a7 115. Gnosticism. The Literature

'a7 116. Meaning, Origin and Character of Gnosticism

'a7 117. System of Gnosticism. Its Theology

'a7 118. Ethics of Gnosticism

'a7 119. Cultus and Organization

'a7 120. Schools of Gnosticism

'a7 121. Simon Magus and the Simonians

'a7 122. The Nicolaitans

'a7 123. Cerinthus

'a7 124. Basilides

'a7 125. Valentinus

'a7 126. The School of Valentinus, Heracleon, Ptolemy, Marcos, Bardesanes, Harmonius

'a7 127. Marcion and his School

'a7 128. The Ophites. The Sethites, Peratae, and Cainites

'a7 129. Saturninus (Satornilos)

'a7 130. Carpocrates

'a7 131. Tatian and the Encratites

'a7 132. Justin the Gnostic

'a7 133. Hermogenes

'a7 134. Other Gnostic Sects

'a7 135. Mani and the Manichaeans

'a7 136. The Manichaean System

Chapter XII: The Development of Catholic Theology

'a7 137. Catholic Orthodoxy

'a7 138. The Holy Scriptures and the Canon

'a7 139. Catholic Tradition

'a7 140. The Rule of Faith and the Apostles’ Creed

'a7 141. Variations of the Apostles’ Creed. Tables

'a7 142. God and the Creation

'a7 143. Man and the Fall

'a7 144. Christ and the Incarnation

'a7 145. The Divinity of Christ

'a7 146. The Humanity of Christ

'a7 147. The Relation of the Divine and Human in Christ

'a7 148. The Holy Spirit

'a7 149. The Holy Trinity

'a7 150. Antitrinitarians. - First Class: The Alogi, Theodotus, Artemon, Paul of Samosata

'a7 151. Antitrinitarians. - Second Class: Praxeas. Noetus, Callistus, Beryllus

'a7 152. Sabellianism

'a7 153. Redemption

'a7 154. Other Doctrines

'a7 155. Eschatology. Immortality and Resurrection

'a7 156. Between Death and Resurrection

'a7 157. After Judgment. Future Punishment

'a7 158. Chiliasm

Chapter XIII: Ecclesiastical Literature of the Ante-Nicene Age, and Biographical Sketches of the Church Fathers

'a7 159. Literature

'a7 160. A General Estimate of the Fathers

'a7 161. The Apostolic Fathers

'a7 162. Clement of Rome

'a7 163. The Pseudo-Clementine Writings

'a7 164. Ignatius of Antioch

'a7 165. The Ignatian Controversy

'a7 166. Polycarp of Smyrna

'a7 167. Barnabas

'a7 168. Hermas

'a7 169. Papias

'a7 170. The Epistle to Diognetus

'a7 171. Sixtus of Rome

'a7 172. The Apologists. Quadratus and Aristides

'a7 173. Justin the Philosopher and Martyr

'a7 174. The Other Greek Apologists. Tatian

'a7 175. Athenagoras

'a7 176. Theophilus of Antioch

'a7 177. Melito of Sardis

'a7 178. Apolinarius of Hierapolis. Miltiades

'a7 179. Hermias

'a7 180. Hegesippus

'a7 181. Dionysius of Corinth

'a7 182. Irenaeus

'a7 183. Hippolytus

'a7 184. Caius of Rome

'a7 185. The Alexandrian School of Theology

'a7 186. Clement of Alexandria

'a7 187. Origen

'a7 188. The Works of Origen

'a7 189. The School of Origen. Gregory Thaumaturgus

'a7 190. Dionysius the Great

'a7 191. Julius Africanus

'a7 192. Minor Divines of the Greek Church

'a7 193. Opponents of Origen. Methodius

'a7 194. Lucian of Antioch

'a7 195. The Antiochian School

'a7 196. Tertullian and the African School

'a7 197. The Writings of Tertullian

'a7 198. Minucius Felix

'a7 199. Cyprian

'a7 200. Novatian

'a7 201. Commodian

'a7 202. Arnobius

'a7 203. Victorinus

'a7 204. Eusebius, Lactantius, Hosius

Volume 3: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity

Prefaces to Volume 3

Third Period: From Constantine the Great to Gregory the Great, a.d. 311-590

Sources and Literature

'a7 1. Introduction and General View

Chapter I: Downfall of Heathenism and Victory of Christianity in the Roman Empire

Sources and Literature

'a7 2. Constantine the Great: a.d. 306-337

'a7 3. The Sons of Constantine: a.d. 337-361

'a7 4. Julian the Apostate, and the Reaction of Paganism: a.d. 361-363

'a7 5. From Jovian to Theodosius: a.d. 363-392

'a7 6. Theodosius the Great and His Successors: a.d. 392-550

'a7 7. The Downfall of Heathenism

Chapter II: The Literary Triumph of Christianity over Greek and Roman Heathenism

Sources and Literature

'a7 8. Heathen Polemics. New Objections

'a7 9. Julian’s Attack upon Christianity

'a7 10. The Heathen Apologetic Literature

'a7 11. Christian Apologetics and Polemics

'a7 12. Augustine’s City of God. Salvianus

Chapter III: Alliance of Church and State, and its Influence on Public Morals and Religion

Sources and Literature

'a7 13. The New Position of the Church in the Empire

'a7 14. Rights and Privileges of the Church. Secular Advantages

'a7 15. Support of the Clergy

'a7 16. Episcopal Jurisdiction and Intercession

'a7 17. Legal Sanction of Sunday. The Civil Sabbath

'a7 18. Influence of Christianity on Civil Legislation. The Justinian Code

'a7 19. Elevation of Woman and the Family

'a7 20. Social Reforms. The State-Church and Slavery. Care of the Poor and Unfortunate

'a7 21. Abolition of Gladiatorial Shows

'a7 22. Evils of the Union of Church and State. Secularization of the Church

'a7 23. Worldliness and Extravagance

'a7 24. Byzantine Court-Christianity

'a7 25. Intrusion of Politics into Religion

'a7 26. The Emperor-Papacy and the Hierarchy

'a7 27. Restriction of Religious Freedom, and Persecution of Heretics

Chapter IV: Monasticism

Sources and Literature

'a7 28. Origin of Christian Monasticism. Comparison with Other Forms of Asceticism

'a7 29. Development of Monasticism

'a7 30. Nature and Aim of Monasticism

'a7 31. Monasticism and the Bible

'a7 32. Lights and Shades of Monastic Life

'a7 33. Position of Monks in the Church

'a7 34. Influence and Effect of Monasticism

'a7 35. Paul of Thebes and St. Anthony

'a7 36. Spread of Anchoritism. Hilarion

'a7 37. Symeon and the Pillar-Saints

'a7 38. Pachomius and the Cloister Life

'a7 39. Fanatical and Heretical Monastic Societies in the East

'a7 40. Monasticism in the West. Athanasius, Ambrose, Augustine, Martin of Tours

'a7 41. St. Jerome as Monk

'a7 42. St. Paula

'a7 43. St. Benedict of Nursia

'a7 44. The Rule of St. Benedict

'a7 45. The Benedictines. Cassiodorus

'a7 46. Opposition to Monasticism. Jovinian

'a7 47. Helvidius, Vigilantius, and A'ebrius

Chapter V: The Hierarchy and Polity of the Church

'a7 48. Schools of the Clergy

'a7 49. Clergy and Laity. Elections

'a7 50. Marriage and Celibacy of the Clergy

'a7 51. Moral Character of the Clergy in General

'a7 52. The Lower Clergy

'a7 53. The Bishops

'a7 54. Organization of the Hierarchy. Country-Bishops, City-Bishops, and Metropolitans

'a7 55. The Patriarchs

'a7 56. Synodical Legislation on the Patriarchal Sees

'a7 57. The Rival Patriarchs of Old and New Rome

'a7 58. The Latin Patriarch

'a7 59. Conflicts and Conquests of the Latin Patriarchate

'a7 60. The Papacy

'a7 61. Opinions of the Fathers

'a7 62. Decrees of Councils on Papal Authority

'a7 63. Leo the Great: a.d. 440-461

'a7 64. The Papacy from Leo I. to Gregory I.: a.d. 461-590

'a7 65. The Synodical System. Ecumenical Councils

'a7 66. List of the Ecumenical Councils

'a7 67. Books of Ecclesiastical Law

Chapter VI: Church Discipline and Schisms

'a7 68. Decline of Discipline

'a7 69. The Schism of the Donatists. External History

'a7 70. Augustine and the Donatists. Their Persecution and Extinction

'a7 71. Internal History of the Donatist Schism. Dogma of the Church

'a7 72. The Roman Schism of Damasus and Ursinus

'a7 73. The Meletian Schism at Antioch

Chapter VII: Public Worship and Religious Customs and Ceremonies

'a7 74. The Revolution in Cultus

'a7 75. The Civil and Religious Sunday

'a7 76. The Church Year

'a7 77. The Christmas Cycle

'a7 78. The Easter Cycle

'a7 79. The Time of Easter

'a7 80. The Cycle of Pentecost

'a7 81. The Exaltation of the Virgin. Mariology

'a7 82. Mariolatry

'a7 83. The Festivals of Mary

'a7 84. The Worship of Martyrs and Saints

'a7 85. Festivals of the Saints

'a7 86. The Calendar. The Legends of the Saints. Acta Sanctorum

'a7 87. Worship of Relics. Dogma of the Resurrection

'a7 88. Observations on the Miracles of the Nicene Age

'a7 89. Processions and Pilgrimages

'a7 90. Public Worship of the Lord’s Day. Scripture Reading and Preaching

'a7 91. The Sacraments in General

'a7 92. Baptism

'a7 93. Confirmation

'a7 94. Ordination

'a7 95. The Sacrament of the Eucharist

'a7 96. The Sacrifice of the Eucharist

'a7 97. The Celebration of the Eucharist

'a7 98. The Liturgies. Their Origin and Contents

'a7 99. The Oriental Liturgies

'a7 100. The Occidental Liturgies

'a7 101. Liturgical Vestments

Chapter VIII: Christian Art

'a7 102. Religion and Art

'a7 103. Church Architecture

'a7 104. Consecration of Churches

'a7 105. Interior Arrangement of Churches

'a7 106. Architectural Style. The Basilicas

'a7 107. The Byzantine Style

'a7 108. Baptisteries, Grave-Chapels and Crypts

'a7 109. Crosses and Crucifixes

'a7 110. Images of Christ

'a7 111. Images of Madonna and Saints

'a7 112. Consecrated Gifts

'a7 113. Church Poetry and Music

'a7 114. The Poetry of the Oriental Church

'a7 115. The Latin Hymn

'a7 116. Latin Poets and Hymns

Chapter IX: Theology. Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy

'a7 117. General Observations. Doctrinal Importance of the Period. Influence of the Ancient Philosophy

'a7 118. Sources of Theology. Scripture and Tradition

I. - The Trinitarian Controversies

General Literature of the Arian Controversy

'a7 119. The Arian Controversy Down to the Council of Nicaea (318-325)

'a7 120. The Council of Nicaea: a.d. 325

'a7 121. The Arian and Semi-Arian Reaction: a.d. 325-361

'a7 122. The Final Victory of Orthodoxy, and the Council of Constantinople: a.d. 381

'a7 123. The Theological Principles Involved: Import of the Controversy

'a7 124. Arianism

'a7 125. Semi-Arianism

'a7 126. Revived Sabellianism. Marcellus and Photinus

'a7 127. The Nicene Doctrine of the Homoousion

'a7 128. The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit

'a7 129. The Nicene and Constantinopolitan Creed

'a7 130. The Nicene Doctrine of the Trinity. The Trinitarian Terminology

'a7 131. The Post-Nicene Doctrine of the Trinity

'a7 132. The Athanasian Creed

II. - The Origenistic Controversies

'a7 133. The Origenistic Controversy in Palestine. Epiphanius, Rufinus, and Jerome: a.d. 394-399

'a7 134. The Origenistic Controversy in Egypt and Constantinople. Theophilus and Chrysostomus: a.d. 399-407

III. - The Christological Controversies

'a7 135. General View. The Alexandrian and Antiochian Schools

'a7 136. The Apollinarian Heresy: a.d. 362-381

'a7 137. The Nestorian Controversy: a.d. 428-431

'a7 138. The Ecumenical Council of Ephesus: a.d. 431. The Compromise

'a7 139. The Nestorians

'a7 140. The Eutychian Controversy. The Council of Robbers: a.d. 449

'a7 141. The Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon: a.d. 451

'a7 142. The Orthodox Christology. Analysis and Criticism

'a7 143. The Monophysite Controversy

'a7 144. The Three Chapters and the Fifth Ecumenical Council: a.d. 553

'a7 145. The Monophysite Sects: Jacobites, Copts, Abyssinians, Armenians, Maronites

IV. - The Anthropological Controversies

Works on the Pelagian Controversy

'a7 146. Character of the Pelagian Controversy

'a7 147. External History of the Pelagian Controversy: a.d. 411-431

'a7 148. The Pelagian Controversy in Palestine

'a7 149. Position of the Roman Church. Condemnation of Pelagianism

'a7 150. The Pelagian System: Primitive State and Freedom of Man; the Fall

'a7 151. The Pelagian System Continued: Doctrine of Human Ability and Divine Grace

'a7 152. The Augustinian System: the Primitive State of Man and Free Will

'a7 153. The Augustinian System Continued: the Fall and its Consequences

'a7 154. The Augustinian System Continued: Original Sin and the Origin of the Soul

'a7 155. Arguments for the Doctrine of Original Sin and Hereditary Guilt

'a7 156. Answers to Pelagian Objections

'a7 157. Augustine’s Doctrine of Redeeming Grace

'a7 158. The Doctrine of Predestination

'a7 159. Semi-Pelagianism and Semi-Augustinianism

'a7 160. Victory of Semi-Augustinianism. Council of Orange: a.d. 529

Chapter X: Church Fathers, and Theological Literature

I. - The Greek Fathers

'a7 161. Eusebius of Caesarea

'a7 162. The Church Historians after Eusebius

'a7 163. Athanasius the Great

'a7 164. Basil the Great

'a7 165. Gregory of Nyssa

'a7 166. Gregory Nazianzen

'a7 167. Didymus of Alexandria

'a7 168. Cyril of Jerusalem

'a7 169. Epiphanius and the Haereseologues

'a7 170. John Chrysostom

'a7 171. Cyril of Alexandria

'a7 172. Ephraem the Syrian

II. - The Latin Fathers

'a7 173. Lactantius

'a7 174. Hilary of Poitiers

'a7 175. Ambrose

'a7 176. Jerome as a Divine and Scholar

'a7 177. The Works of Jerome

'a7 178. Augustine

'a7 179. The Works of Augustine

'a7 180. The Influence of Augustine upon Posterity and his Relation to Catholicism and Protestantism

Volume 4: Medieval Christianity from a.d. 590-1049

Chapter I: General Introduction to Medieval Church History

'a7 1. Sources and Literature

'a7 2. The Middle Age. Limits and General Character

'a7 3. The Nations of Medieval Christianity, Kelt, Teuton, Slav

'a7 4. Genius of Medieval Christianity

'a7 5. Periods of the Middle Age

Fourth Period: The Church Among the Barbarians. From Gregory I to Gregory VII a.d. 590-1049 (1073)

Chapter II: The Conversion of the Northern and Western Barbarians

'a7 6. Character of Medieval Missions

I. The Conversion of England, Ireland, and Scotland

'a7 7. Literature

'a7 8. The Britons

'a7 9. The Anglo-Saxons

'a7 10. The Mission of Gregory and Augustin. Conversion of Kent

'a7 11. Antagonism of the Saxon and British Clergy

'a7 12. Conversion of the other Kingdoms of the Heptarchy

'a7 13. Conformity to Rome Established. Wilfrid, Theodore, Bede

'a7 14. Conversion of Ireland. St. Patrick, St. Bridget, (Critical Note on St. Patrick)

'a7 15. The Irish Church After St. Patrick

'a7 16. Subjection of Ireland to English and Roman Rule

'a7 17. Conversion of Scotland. St. Ninian and St. Kentigern

'a7 18. St. Columba and the Monastery of Iona

'a7 19. The Culdees

'a7 20. Extinction of the Keltic Church, and Triumph of Rome under King David

II. The Conversion of France, Germany, and Adjacent Countries

General Literature

'a7 21. Arian Christianity Among the Goths and Other German Tribes

'a7 22. Conversion of Clovis and the Franks

'a7 23. Columbanus and the Irish Missionaries on the Continent

'a7 24. German Missionaries before Boniface

'a7 25. Boniface, the Apostle of Germany

'a7 26. Pupils of Boniface. Willibald, Gregory of Utrecht, Sturm of Fulda

'a7 27. Conversion of the Saxons. Charlemagne and Alcuin. The Heliand and the Gospel Harmony

III. The Conversion of Scandinavia

General Literature

'a7 28. Scandinavian Heathenism

'a7 29. Christianization of Denmark. St. Ansgar

'a7 30. Christianization of Sweden

'a7 31. Christianization of Norway and Iceland

IV. The Christianization of the Slavs

'a7 32. General Survey

'a7 33. Christian Missions among the Wends

'a7 34. Cyrillus and Methodius, the Apostles of the Slavs. Christianization of Moravia, Bohemia and Poland

'a7 35. Conversion of the Bulgarians

'a7 36. Conversion of the Magyars

'a7 37. Christianization of Russia

Chapter III: Mohammedanism in its Relation to Christianity

'a7 38. Literature

'a7 39. Statistics and Chronological Table

'a7 40. Position of Mohammedanism in Church History

'a7 41. The Home, and the Antecedents of Islam

'a7 42. Life and Character of Mohammed

'a7 43. The Conquests of Islam

'a7 44. The Koran and the Bible

'a7 45. The Mohammedan Religion

'a7 46. Mohammedan Worship

'a7 47. Christian Polemics against Islam. Note on Mormonism

Chapter IV: Papal Hierarchy and the Holy Roman Empire

'a7 48. General Literature on the Papacy

'a7 49. Chronological Table of the Popes, Anti-Popes and Emperors From Gregory I. a.d. 590 to Leo. XIII. a.d. 1878

'a7 50. Gregory the Great. a.d. 590-604

'a7 51. Gregory and the Univeral Episcopate

'a7 52. The Writings of Gregory

'a7 53. The Papacy From Gregory I. to Gregory II. a.d. 604-715

'a7 54. From Gregory II. to Zacharias. a.d. 715-741

'a7 55. Alliance of the Papacy with the New Monarchy of the Franks. Pepin and the Patrimony of St. Peter. a.d. 741-755

'a7 56. Charlemagne. a.d. 768-814

'a7 57. Founding of the Holy Roman Empire. a.d. 800. Charlemagne and Leo III.

'a7 58. Survey of the History of the Holy Roman Empire

'a7 59. The Papacy and the Empire From the Death of Charlemagne to Nicolas I. a.d. 814-858. Myth of the Papess Joan

'a7 60. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

'a7 61. Nicolas I. April, 858-Nov. 13, 867

'a7 62. Hadrian II. and John VIII., a.d. 867-882

'a7 63. Degradation of the Papacy in the Tenth Century

'a7 64. Interference of Otho the Great

'a7 65. Second Degradation of the Papacy From Otho I. to Henry III. a.d. 973-1046

'a7 66. Henry III. and the Synod of Sutri. Deposition of Three Rival Popes a.d. 1046

Chapter V: The Conflict of the Eastern and Western Churches and Their Separation

'a7 67. Sources and Literature on the Oriental Schism

'a7 68. Consensus and Dissensus Between the Greek and Latin Churches

'a7 69. Causes of Separation

'a7 70. The Patriarch and the Pope. Photius and Nicolas

'a7 71. Progress and Completion of the Schism. Cerularius. 1054

'a7 72. Fruitless Attempts at Reunion

Chapter VI: Morals and Religion

'a7 73. Literature

'a7 74. General Character of Medieval Morals

'a7 75. Clerical Morals

'a7 76. Domestic Life

'a7 77. Slavery

'a7 78. Feuds and Private War. The Truce of God

'a7 79. The Ordeal

'a7 80. The Torture

'a7 81. Christian Charity

Chapter VII: Monasticism

'a7 82. Use of Convents in the Middle Ages

'a7 83. St. Benedict, St. Nilus, St. Romuald

'a7 84. The Convent of Cluny

Chapter VIII: Church Discipline

'a7 85. The Penitential Books

'a7 86. Ecclesiastical Punishments. Excommunication, Anthema, Interdict

'a7 87. Penance and Indulgence

Chapter IX: Church and State

'a7 88. Legislation

'a7 89. The Roman Law

'a7 90. The Capitularies of Charlemagne

'a7 91. English Legislation

Chapter X: Worship and Ceremonies

'a7 92. The Mass

'a7 93. The Sermon

'a7 94. Church Poetry. Greek Hymns and Hymnists

'a7 95. Latin Hymnody. Literature

'a7 96. Latin Hymns and Hymnists

'a7 97. The Seven Sacraments

'a7 98. The Organ and the Bell

'a7 99. The Worship of Saints

'a7 100. The Worship of Images. Literature. Different Theories

'a7 101. The Iconoclastic War, and the Synod of 754

'a7 102. The Restoration of Image-Worship and the Seventh Ecumenical Council, a.d. 787

'a7 103. Iconoclastic Reaction and Final Triumph of Image-Worship a.d. 842

'a7 104. The Caroline Books and the Frankish Church

'a7 105. Evangelical Reformers. Agobard of Lyons and Claudius of Turin

Chapter XI: Doctrinal Controversies

'a7 106. General Survey

'a7 107. I. The Procession of the Holy Spirit

'a7 108. The Arguments for and against the Filioque

'a7 109. II. The Monotheletic Controversy. Literature

'a7 110. The Doctrine of Two Wills in Christ

'a7 111. History of Monotheletism and Dyotheletism

'a7 112. The Sixth Ecumenical Council. a.d. 680

'a7 113. The Heresy of Honorius

'a7 114. Concilium Quinisextum, a.d. 692

'a7 115. Reaction of Monotheletism. The Maronites

'a7 116. III. The Adoptionist Controversy. Literature

'a7 117. History of Adoptionism

'a7 118. Doctrine of Adoptionism

'a7 119. IV. The Predestinarian Controversy. Literature

'a7 120. Gottschalk and Rabanus Maurus

'a7 121. Gottschalk and Hincmar

'a7 122. The Contending Theories of Predestination, and the Victory of Semi-Augustinianism

'a7 123. The Doctrine of Scotus Erigena on Predestination and Free Will

'a7 124. V. The Eucharistic Controversies. Literature

'a7 125. The Two Theories of the Lord’s Supper

'a7 126. The Theory of Paschasius Radbertus

'a7 127. The Theory of Ratramnus

'a7 128. The Berengar Controversy

'a7 129. Berengar’s Theory of the Lord’s Supper

'a7 130. Lanfranc and the Triumph of Transubstantiation

Chapter XII: Heretical Sects

'a7 131. The Paulicians

'a7 132. The Euchites and other Sects in the East

'a7 133. The New Manichaeans in the West

Chapter XIII: The State of Learning

'a7 134. Literature

'a7 135. Literary Character of the Early Middle Ages

'a7 136. Learning in the Eastern Church

'a7 137. Christian Platonism and the Pseudo-Dionysian Writings

'a7 138. Ignorance in the West

'a7 139. Educational Efforts of the Latin Church

'a7 140. Charles the Great, and Charles the Bald

'a7 141. King Alfred, and Education in England

Chapter XIV: Biographical Sketches of the Ecclesiastical Writers

'a7 142. Chronologist List of the Principal Ecclesiastical Writers from the Sixth to the Twelfth Century

I. Greek Authors

'a7 143. St. Maximus Confessor

'a7 144. St. John of Damascus

'a7 145. Photius

'a7 146. Simeon Metaphrastes

'a7 147. Oecumenius

'a7 148. Theophylact

'a7 149. Michael Psellus

'a7 150. Euthymius Zigabenus

'a7 151. Eustathius of Thessalonica

'a7 152. Nicetas Acominatos

II. Latin Authors

'a7 153. Cassiodorus

'a7 154. St. Gregory of Tours

'a7 155. St. Isidore of Seville

'a7 156. The Venerable Bede

'a7 157. Paul the Deacon

'a7 158. St. Paulinus of Aquileia

'a7 159. Alcuin

'a7 160. St. Liudger

'a7 161. Theodulph of Orleans

'a7 162. St. Eigil

'a7 163. Amalarius

'a7 164. Einhard

'a7 165. Smaragdus

'a7 166. Jonas of Orleans

'a7 167. Rabanus Maurua

'a7 168. Haymo of Halberstadt

'a7 169. Walahfrid Strabo

'a7 170. Florus Magister of Lyons

'a7 171. Servatus Lupus

'a7 172. Druthmar

'a7 173. St. Paschasius Radbertus

'a7 174. Ratramnus

'a7 175. Hincmar of Rheims

'a7 176. Johannes Scotus Erigena

'a7 177. Anastasius

'a7 178. Ratherius of Verona

'a7 179. Gerbert (Sylvester II.)

'a7 180. Fulbert of Chartres

'a7 181. Rodulfus Glaber. Adam of Bremen

'a7 182. St. Peter Damiani

Volume 5: The Middle Ages from Gregory VII., 1049, to Boniface VIII., 1294

Preface to Volume 5

From Gregory VII. to Boniface VIII. 1049 to 1294

'a7 1. General Literature

'a7 2. Introductory Survey

Chapter I: The Hildebrandian Popes. 1049-1073

'a7 3. Sources and Literature on Chapters I. and II

'a7 4. Hildebrand and his Training

'a7 5. Hildebrand and Leo IX. 1049-1054

'a7 6. Victor II. and Stephen IX. (X.) 1055-1058

'a7 7. Nicolas II. and the Cardinals. 1059-1061

'a7 8. The War against Clerical Marriage

'a7 9. Alexander II. and the Schism of Cadalus. 1061-1073

Chapter II. Gregory VII. 1073-1085

'a7 10. Hildebrand Elected Pope. His Views on the Situation

'a7 11. The Gregorian Theocracy

'a7 12. Gregory VII. as a Moral Reformer

'a7 13. The Enforcement of Sacerdotal Celibacy

'a7 14. The War over Investiture

'a7 15. Gregory VII. and Henry IV.

'a7 16. Canossa. 1077

'a7 17. Renewal of the Conflict. Two Kings and Two Popes

'a7 18. Death of Gregory VII.

Chapter III: The Papacy From the Death of Gregory VII. to the Concordat of Worms. 1085-1122

'a7 19. Victor III. and Urban II. 1086-1099

'a7 20. Pascal II. and Henry V. 1099-1118

'a7 21. The Concordat of Worms. 1122

'a7 22. The Conflict of the Hierarchy in England

'a7 23. William Rufus and Anselm

'a7 24. Anselm and Henry I.

Chapter IV: The Papacy from the Concordat of Worms to Innocent III. 1122-1198

'a7 25. Innocent II. and Eugenius III.

'a7 26. Arnold of Brescia

'a7 27. The Popes and the Hohenstaufen

'a7 28. Adrian IV. and Frederick Barbarossa

'a7 29. Alexander III. in Conflict with Barbarossa

'a7 30. The Peace of Venice. 1177

'a7 31. Thomas Becket and Henry II. of England

'a7 32. The Archbishop and the King

'a7 33. The Martyrdom of Thomas Becket. Dec. 29, 1170

'a7 34. The Effects of Becket’s Murder

Chapter V: Innocent III. and His Age. 1198-1216

'a7 35. Literature

'a7 36. Innocent’s Training and Election

'a7 37. Innocent’s Theory of the Papacy

'a7 38. Innocent and the German Empire

'a7 39. Innocent and King John of England

'a7 40. Innocent and Magna Charta

'a7 41. The Fourth Lateran Council, 1215

Chapter VI: The Papacy from the Death of Innocent III. to Boniface VIII. 1216-1294

'a7 42. The Papal Conflict With Frederick II. Begun

'a7 43. Gregory IX. and Frederick II. 1227-1241

'a7 44. The Close of Frederick’s Career. 1250

'a7 45. The Last of the Hohenstaufen

'a7 46. The Empire and Papacy at Peace. 1271-1294

Chapter VII: The Crusades

'a7 47. Literature on the Crusades as a Whole

'a7 48. Character and Causes of the Crusades

'a7 49. The Call to the Crusades

'a7 50. The First Crusade and the Capture of Jerusalem

'a7 51. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. 1099-1187

'a7 52. The Fall of Edessa and the Second Crusade

'a7 53. The Third Crusade. 1189-1192

'a7 54. The Children’s Crusades

'a7 55. The Fourth Crusade and Capture of Constantinople

'a7 56. Frederick II. and the Fifth Crusade. 1229

'a7 57. St. Louis and the Last Crusades. 1248, 1270

'a7 58. Last Stronghold of the Crusaders in Palestine

'a7 59. Effects of the Crusades

'a7 60. The Military Orders

Chapter VIII: The Monastic Orders

'a7 61. The Revival of Monasticism

'a7 62. Monasticism and the Papacy

'a7 63. The Monks of Cluny

'a7 64. The Cistercians

'a7 65. St. Bernard of Clairvaux

'a7 66. The Augustinians, Carthusians, etc.

'a7 67. Monastic Prophets

'a7 68. The Mendicant Orders

'a7 69. Franciscan Literature

'a7 70. St. Francis d’Assisi

'a7 71. The Franciscans

'a7 72. St. Dominic and the Dominicans

Chapter IX: Missions

'a7 73. Literature and General Survey

'a7 74. Missions in Northeastern Germany

'a7 75. Missions among the Mohammedans

'a7 76. Missions among the Mongols

'a7 77. The Jews

Chapter X: Heresy and its Suppression

'a7 78. Literature for the Entire Chapter

'a7 79. The Medieval Dissenters

'a7 80. The Cathari

'a7 81. Peter de Bruys and Other Independent Leaders

'a7 82. The Amaurians and Other Isolated Sects

'a7 83. The Beguines and Beghards

'a7 84. The Waldenses

'a7 85. The Crusades against the Albigenses

'a7 86. The Inquisition. Its Origin and Purpose

'a7 87. The Inquisition. Its Mode of Procedure

Chapter XI: Universities and Cathedrals

'a7 88. Schools

'a7 89. Books and Libraries

'a7 90. The Universities

'a7 91. The University of Bologna

'a7 92. The University of Paris

'a7 93. Oxford and Cambridge

'a7 94. The Cathedrals

Chapter XII: Scholastic and Mystic Theology

'a7 95. Literature and General Introduction

'a7 96. Sources and Development of Scholasticism

'a7 97. Realism and Nominalism

'a7 98. Anselm of Canterbury

'a7 99. Peter Abelard

'a7 100. Abelard’s Teachings and Theology

'a7 101. Younger Contemporaries of Abelard

'a7 102. Peter the Lombard and the Summists

'a7 103. Mysticism

'a7 104. St. Bernard as a Mystic

'a7 105. Hugo and Richard of St. Victor

Chapter XIII: Scholasticism at its Height

'a7 106. Alexander of Hales

'a7 107. Albertus Magnus

'a7 108. Thomas Aquinas

'a7 109. Bonaventura

'a7 110. Duns Scotus

'a7 111. Roger Bacon

Chapter XIV: The Sacramental System

'a7 112. Literature on the Sacraments

'a7 113. The Seven Sacraments

'a7 114. Baptism and Confirmation

'a7 115. The Eucharist

'a7 116. Eucharistic Practice and Superstition

'a7 117. Penance and Indulgences

'a7 118. Penance and Indulgences

'a7 119. Extreme Unction, Ordination, and Marriage

'a7 120. Sin and Grace

'a7 121. The Future State

Chapter XV: Pope and Clergy

'a7 122. The Canon Law

'a7 123. The Papal Supremacy in Church and State

'a7 124. The Pope and the Curia

'a7 125. The Bishops

'a7 126. The Lower Clergy

'a7 127. The Councils

'a7 128. The Church and Clergy in England

'a7 129. Two English Bishops

Chapter XVI: Popular Worship and Superstition

'a7 130. The Worship of Mary

'a7 131. The Worship of Relics

'a7 132. The Sermon

'a7 133. Hymns and Sacred Poetry

'a7 134. The Religious Drama

'a7 135. The Flagellants

'a7 136. Demonology and the Dark Arts

'a7 137. The Age Passing Judgment upon Itself

Volume 6: The Middle Ages: From Boniface VIII., 1294, to the Protestant Reformation, 1517

Preface to Volume 6

The Sixth Period of Church History: From Boniface VIII. to Martin Luther. a.d. 1294-1517

'a7 1. Introductory Survey

Chapter I: The Decline of the Papacy and the Avignon Exile. a.d. 1294-1377

'a7 2. Sources and Literature

'a7 3. Pope Boniface VIII. 1294-1303

'a7 4. Boniface VIII. and Philip the Fair of France

'a7 5. Literary Attacks against the Papacy

'a7 6. The Transfer of the Papacy to Avignon

'a7 7. The: Pontificate of John XXII. 1316-1334

'a7 8. The Papal Office Assailed

'a7 9. The Financial Policy of the Avignon Popes

'a7 10. The Later Avignon Popes

'a7 11. The Reestablishment of the Papacy in Rome. 1377

Chapter II: The Papal Schism and the Reformatory Councils. 1378-1449

'a7 12. Sources and Literature

'a7 13. The Schism Begun. 1378

'a7 14. Further Progress of the Schism. 1378-1409

'a7 15. The Council of Pisa. 1409

'a7 16. The Council of Constance. 1414-1418

'a7 17. The Council of Basel. 1431-1449

'a7 18. The Council of Ferrara-Florence 1438-1445

Chapter III: Leaders of Catholic Thought

'a7 19. Sources and Literature

'a7 20. Ockam and the Decay of Scholasticism

'a7 21. Catherine of Siena, the Saint

'a7 22. Peter d’Ailly, Ecclesiastical Statesman

'a7 23. John Gersow, Theologian and Church Leader

'a7 24. Nicolas of Clamanges, the Moralist

'a7 25. Nicolas of Cusa, Scholar and Churchman

'a7 26. Popular Preachers

Chapter IV: The German Mystics

'a7 27. Sources and Literature

'a7 28. The New Mysticism

'a7 29. Meister Eckart

'a7 30. John Tauler of Strassburg

'a7 31. Henry Suso

'a7 32. The Friends of God

'a7 33. John of Ruysbroeck

'a7 34. Gerrit De Groote. The Brothers of the Common Life

'a7 35. The Imitation of Christ. Thomas 'e0 Kempis

'a7 36. The German Theology

'a7 37. English Mystics

Chapter V: Reformers Before the Reformation

'a7 38. Sources and Literature

'a7 39. The Church in England in the 14th Century

'a7 40. John Wyclif

'a7 41. Wyclif’s Teachings

'a7 42. Wyclif and the Scriptures

'a7 43. The Lollards

'a7 44. John Huss of Bohemia

'a7 45. Huss at Constance

'a7 46. Jerome of Prag

'a7 47. The Hussites

Chapter VI: The Last Popes of the Middle Ages. 1417-1521

'a7 48. Literature and General Survey

'a7 49. Nicolas V. 1447-1455

'a7 50. Aeneas Sylvius de’ Piccolomini, Pius II.

'a7 51. Paul II. 1464-1471

'a7 52. Sixtus IV. 1471-1484

'a7 53. Innocent VIII. 1484-1492

'a7 54. Pope Alexander VI. - Borgia. 1492-1503

'a7 55. Julius II., the Warrior-Pope. 1503-1513

'a7 56. Leo X. 1513-1521

Chapter VII: Heresy and Witchcraft

'a7 57. Sources and Literature

'a7 58. Heretical and Unchurchly Movements

'a7 59. Witchcraft and Its Punishment

'a7 60. The Spanish Inquisition

Chapter VIII: The Renaissance

'a7 61. Sources and Literature

'a7 62. The Intellectual Awakening

'a7 63. Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio

'a7 64. Progress of Classical Studies

'a7 65. Greek Teachers and Italian Humanists

'a7 66. The Artists

'a7 67. The Revival of Paganism

'a7 68. German Humanism

'a7 69. Reuchlin and Erasmus

'a7 70. Humanism in France

'a7 71. Humanism in England

Chapter IX: The Pulpit and Popular Piety

'a7 72. Literature

'a7 73. The Clergy

'a7 74. Preaching

'a7 75. Doctrinal Reformers

'a7 76. Savonarola

'a7 77. Study and Circulation of the Bible

'a7 78. Popular Piety

'a7 79. Works of Charity

'a7 80. The Sale of Indulgences

Chapter X: The Close of the Middle Ages

Volume 7: Modern Christianity: The German Reformation

Preface to Volume 7

History of the Reformation 1517-1648

Chapter I: Orientation: Medieval and Modern Christianity

'a7 1. The Turning Point of Modern History

'a7 2. Protestantism and Romanism

'a7 3. Necessity of a Reformation

'a7 4. Preparations for the Reformation

'a7 5. The Genius and Aim of the Reformation

'a7 6. The Authority of the Scriptures

'a7 7. Justification by Faith

'a7 8. The Priesthood of the Laity

'a7 9. The Reformation and Rationalism

'a7 10. Protestantism and Denominationalism

'a7 11. Protestantism and Religious Liberty

'a7 12. Religious Intolerance and Liberty in England and America

'a7 13. Chronological Limits

'a7 14. General Literature on the Reformation

First Book: The German Reformation, till the Diet of Augsburg 1517-1530

Chapter II: Luther’s Training for the Reformation (1483-1517)

'a7 15. Literature on the German Reformation

'a7 16. Germany and the Reformation

'a7 17. The Luther Literature

'a7 18. Luther’s Youth and Training

'a7 19. Luther in the University of Erfurt

'a7 20. Luther’s Conversion

'a7 21. Luther as a Monk

'a7 22. Luther and Staupitz

'a7 23. The Victory of Justifying Faith

'a7 24. Luther Ordained to the Priesthood

'a7 25. Luther in Rome

'a7 26. The University of Wittenberg

'a7 27. Luther as Professor till 1517. His Exegetical Lectures

'a7 28. Luther and Mysticism. The Theologia Germanica

'a7 29. The Penitential Psalms. The Eve of the Reformation

Chapter III: The Reformation from the Publication of Luther’s Theses to the Diet of Worms (1517-1521)

'a7 30. The Sale of Indulgences

'a7 31. Luther and Tetzel

'a7 32. The Ninety-Five theses (Oct. 31, 1517)

Notes. - Text of the Theses

'a7 33. The Theses Controversy

'a7 34. Rome’s Interposition: Luther and Prierias. 1518

'a7 35. Luther and Cajetan (October, 1518)

'a7 36. Luther and Miltitz (January, 1519)

'a7 37. The Leipzig Disputation (June and July, 1519)

'a7 38. Philip Melanchthon, Literature

'a7 39. Melanchthon’s Training

'a7 40. Melanchthon’s Early Labors

'a7 41. Luther and Melanchthon

'a7 42. Ulrich von Hutten and Luther

'a7 43. Luther’s Crusade against Popery (1520)

'a7 44. The Address to the German Nobility (July, 1520)

'a7 45. The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (October, 1520)

'a7 46. Christian Freedom. Luther’s Third and Last Letter to the Pope (October, 1520)

'a7 47. The Bull of Excommunication (June 15, 1520)

Notes. - Text of the Papal Bull

'a7 48. Luther Burns the Pope’s Bull, and Forever Breaks with Rome (Dec. 10, 1520)

'a7 49. The Reformation and the Papacy

'a7 50. Emperor Charles V.

'a7 51. The Ecclesiastical Policy of Charles V.

'a7 52. The Abdication of Charles, and His Cloister-Life

'a7 53. The Diet of Worms (1521)

'a7 54. Luther’s Journey to Worms

'a7 55. Luther’s Testimony Before the Diet of Worms (April 17 and 18, 1521)

'a7 56. Reflections on Luther’s Testimony

'a7 57. Private Conferences. Conduct of the Emperor

'a7 58. The Ban of the Empire (May 8 (26), 1521)

'a7 59. State of Public Opinion. Popular Literature

Chapter IV: The Reformation from the Diet of Worms to the Peasants’ War (1521-1525)

'a7 60. A New Phase in the History of the Reformation

'a7 61. Luther at the Wartburg (April, 1521, to March, 1522)

'a7 62. Luther’s Translation of the Bible

Notes. - The Pre-Lutheran German Bible

'a7 63. A Critical Estimate of Luther’s Version

Notes. - The Revision of Luther’s Version, and the Anglo-American Revision of King James’s Version

'a7 64. Melanchthon’s Theology. Loci Theologici

'a7 65. Protestant Radicalism. Disturbances at Erfurt

'a7 66. The Revolution at Wittenberg. Carlstadt and the New Prophets

'a7 67. Luther Returns to Wittenberg (March, 1522)

'a7 68. Luther Restores Order in Wittenberg. The End of Carlstadt

'a7 69. The Diets of N'fcrnberg (1522-1524). Pope Adrian VI.

'a7 70. Luther and Henry VIII. (1522)

'a7 71. Desiderius Erasmus

'a7 72. Erasmus and the Reformation

'a7 73. The Free-Will Controversy (1524-1527)

'a7 74. Wilibald Pirkheimer

'a7 75. The Peasants’ War (1523-1525)

Chapter V: The Inner Development of the Reformation, from the Peasants’ War to the Diet of Augsburg (1525-1530)

'a7 76. The Three Electors

'a7 77. Luther’s Marriage

'a7 78. Luther’s Home-Life and Private Character

'a7 79. Reflections on Clerical Family Life

'a7 80. Reformation of Public Worship

'a7 81. Prominent Features of Evangelical Worship

'a7 82. Beginnings of Evangelical Hymnody

'a7 83. Luther and Common Schools

'a7 84. Reconstruction of Church Government and Discipline

'a7 85. Enlarged Conception of the Church. Augustin, Wiclif, Hus, Luther

Notes. - Luther’s Views on the Church Fathers

'a7 86. Changes in the Views of the Ministry. Departure From the Episcopal Succession. Luther Ordains a Deacon and Consecrates a Bishop

'a7 87. Relation of Church and State

'a7 88. Church Visitation in Saxony

'a7 89. Luther’s Catechisms (1529)

'a7 90. The Typical Catechisms of Protestantism

Chapter VI: Propagation and Persecution of Protestantism

'a7 91. Causes and Means of Progress

'a7 92. The Printing-Press and the Reformation

'a7 93. Protestantism in Saxony

'a7 94. The Reformation in N'fcrnberg

'a7 95. The Reformation in Strassburg

'a7 96. Protestantism in North Germany

'a7 97. Protestantism in Augsburg and South Germany

'a7 98. The Reformation in Hesse

'a7 99. The Reformation in Prussia

'a7 100. Protestant Martyrs

Chapter VII: The Sacramentarian Controversies

'a7 101. Sacerdotalism and Sacramentalism

'a7 102. The Anabaptist Controversy. Luther and H'fcbmaier

'a7 103. The Eucharistic Controversy

'a7 104. Luther’s Theory before the Controversy

'a7 105. Luther and Carlstadt

'a7 106. Luther and Zwingli

'a7 107. The Marburg Conference

'a7 108. The Marburg Conference (continued). Discussion and Result

Note. - On the Origin of the Sentence: In necessariis unitas, etc.

'a7 109. Luther’s Last Attack on the Sacramentarians. His Relation to Calvin

'a7 110. Reflections on the Ethics of the Eucharistic Controversy

'a7 111. The Eucharistic Theories Compared. Luther, Zwingli, Calvin

Chapter VIII: The Political Situation Between 1526 and 1529

'a7 112. The First Diet of Speier, and the Beginning of the Territorial System (1526)

'a7 113. The Emperor and the: Pope. The Sacking of Rome (1527)

'a7 114. A War Panic (1528)

'a7 115. The Second Diet of Speier, and the Protest (1529)

'a7 116. The Reconciliation of the Emperor and the Pope. The Crowning of the Emperor (1529)

Chapter IX: The Diet and Confession of Augsburg (1530)

'a7 117. The Diet of Augsburg

'a7 118. The Negotiations, the Recess of Augsburg, and the Peace of N'fcrnberg

'a7 119. The Confession of Augsburg

'a7 120. The Confutation and the Apology

'a7 121. The Tetrapolitan Confession

'a7 122. Zwingli’s Confession

'a7 123. Luther at the Coburg

'a7 124. Luther’s Public Character, and Place in History

'a7 125. Ein Feste Burg Ist Unser Gott

Volume 8: Modern Christianity: The Swiss Reformation

Prefaces to Volume 8

Second Book: The Swiss Reformation

Chapter I: Introduction

'a7 1. Switzerland before the Reformation

'a7 2. The Swiss Reformation

'a7 3. The Genius of the Swiss Reformation compared with the German

'a7 4. Literature on the Swiss Reformation

Chapter II: Zwingli’s Training. a.d. 1484-1519

'a7 5. The Zwingli Literature

'a7 6. Zwingli’s Birth and Education

'a7 7. Zwingli in Glarus. (Notes on His Moral Character)

'a7 8. Zwingli in Einsiedeln

'a7 9. Zwingli and Luther

Chapter III: The Reformation in Z'fcrich. 1519-1526

'a7 10. Zwingli called to Z'fcrich

'a7 11. Zwingli’s Public Labors and Private Studies

'a7 12. Zwingli and the Sale of Indulgences

'a7 13. Zwingli during the Pestilence

'a7 14. The Open Breach. Controversy about Fasts, 1522

'a7 15. Petition for the Abolition of Clerical Celibacy. Zwingli’s Marriage

'a7 16. Zwingli and Lambert of Avignon

'a7 17. Zwingli’s Sixty-Seven Articles, 1523

'a7 18. The Public Disputations, 1523

'a7 19. The Abolition of the Roman Worship, 1524

'a7 20. The Reformed Celebration of the Lord’s Supper, 1525

'a7 21. Other Changes. A Theological School. A System of Theology

'a7 22. The Translation of the Bible. Leo Judae

'a7 23. Church and State

'a7 24. Zwingli’s Conflict with Radicalism

'a7 25. The Baptismal Controversy

'a7 26. Persecution of the Anabaptists

'a7 27. The Eucharistic Controversy

'a7 28. The Works of Zwingli

'a7 29. The Theology of Zwingli

Chapter IV: Spread of the Reformation in German Switzerland and the Grisons

'a7 30. The Swiss Diet and the Conference at Baden, 1526

'a7 31. The Reformation in Berne

'a7 32. The Reformation in Basel. (Oecolampadius)

'a7 33. The Reformation in Glarus. Tschudi. Glareanus

'a7 34. The Reformation in St. Gall, Toggenburg, and Appenzell. Watt and Kessler

'a7 35. The Reformation in Schaffhausen. Hofmeister

'a7 36. The Grisons (Graub'fcnden)

'a7 37. The Reformation in the Grisons

'a7 38. The Reformation in the Italian Valleys of the Grisons. Vergerio

'a7 39. Protestantism in Chiavenna and the Valtellina, and its Suppression. The Valtellina Massacre. George Jenatsch

'a7 40. The Congregation of Locarno

'a7 41. Zwinglianism in Germany

Chapter V: The Civil and Religious War between the Roman Catholic and Reformed Cantons

'a7 42. The First War of Cappel, 1529

'a7 43. The First Peace of Cappell, June, 1529

'a7 44. Between the Wars. Political Plans of Zwingli

'a7 45. Zwingli’s Last Confession of Faith

'a7 46. The Second War of Cappel, 1531

'a7 47. Death of Zwingli, Oct. 11, 1531

'a7 48. Reflections on the Disaster at Cappel

'a7 49. The Second Peace of Cappel, November, 1531

'a7 50. The Roman Catholic Reaction

'a7 51. The Relative Strength of Romanism and Protestantism

'a7 52. Zwingli Redivivus

Chapter VI: The Period of Consolidation

'a7 53. Literature

'a7 54. Heinrich Bullinger

'a7 55. Antistes Breitinger

'a7 56. Oswald Myconius

'a7 57. The Helvetic Confessions of Faith

Third Book: The Reformation in French Switzerland, or the Calvinistic Movement

Chapter VII: The Preparatory Work. From 1526 to 1536

'a7 58. Literature on Calvin and the Reformation in French Switzerland

'a7 59. The Situation of French Switzerland before the Reformation

'a7 60. William Farel (1489-1565)

'a7 61. Farel in Geneva. The First Act of the Reformation

'a7 62. The Last Labors of Farel

'a7 63. Peter Viret and the Reformation in Lausanne

'a7 64. Antoine Froment

Chapter VIII: John Calvin and His Work. From 1536 to 1564

'a7 65. John Calvin compared with the Older Reformers

'a7 66. Calvin’s Place in History

'a7 67. Calvin’s Literary Labors

'a7 68. Tributes to the Merits of Calvin

Chapter IX: From France to Switzerland. 1509-1636

'a7 69. Calvin’s Youth and Training

'a7 70. Calvin as a Student in the French Universities

'a7 71. Calvin as a Humanist. Commentary on Seneca, 1532

'a7 72. Calvin’s Conversion, 1532

'a7 73. Calvin’s Call

'a7 74. The Open Rupture. An Academic Oration, 1533

'a7 75. Persecution of the Protestants in Paris, 1534

'a7 76. Calvin as a Wandering Evangelist, 1533-1536

'a7 77. The Sleep of the Soul, 1534

'a7 78. Calvin at Basel, 1535-1536

'a7 79. Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536

'a7 80. From Basel to Ferrara and Geneva. The Duchess Renee

Chapter X: Calvin’s First Sojourn and Labors