Lange Commentary - 1 Chronicles 15:1 - 16:43

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Lange Commentary - 1 Chronicles 15:1 - 16:43


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This Chapter Verse Commentaries:

. The Removal of the Ark to Jerusalem, with the Solemn Hymn sung on this occasion: 1 Chronicles 15, 16

1Ch_15:1 And he made him houses in the city of David, and he prepared a place for the ark of God, and pitched for it a tent.

2Then David said, None should carry the ark of God but the Levites; for the Lord hath chosen them to carry the ark of God, and to minister to Him for ever 3And David gathered all Israel to Jerusalem, to bring up the ark of the Lord unto its place which he had prepared for it. 4And David assembled the sons of Aaron, and the Levites. 5Of the sons of Kohath: Uriel the chief, and his brethren a hundred and thirty. 6Of the sons of Merari: Asaiah the chief, and his brethren two hundred and twenty. 7Of the sons of Gershom: Joel the chief, and his brethren a hundred and thirty. 8Of the sons of Elizaphan: Shemaiah the chief, and his brethren two hundred. 9Of the sons of Hebron: Eliel the chief, and his brethren eighty. 10Of the sons of Uzziel: Amminadab the chief, and his brethren a hundred and twelve. 11And David called Zadok and Abiathar the priests, and the Levites Uriel, Asaiah, and Joel, Shemaiah, and Eliel, and Amminadab. 12And said unto them, Ye chiefs of the Levites, sanctify yourselves with your brethren, and bring up the ark of the Lord God of Israel to the place I have prepared for it. 13For because ye were not at the first, the 14Lord our God broke out upon us, because we sought Him not aright. And the priests and Levites sanctified themselves to bring up the ark of the Lord God of 15Israel. And the sons of the Levites bare the ark of God, as Moses commanded by the word of the Lord, upon their shoulders, with staves upon them.

16And David said to the chiefs of the Levites, to appoint their brethren the singers with instruments, psalteries, and harps, and cymbals, sounding, to lift up 17the sound with gladness. And the Levites appointed Heman son of Joel; and of his brethren, Asaph son of Berechiah; and of the sons of Merari their brethren, Ethan son of Kushaiah. 18And with them their brethren of the second degree: Zechariah , 2 and Jaaziel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Unni, Eliab, and Benaiah, and Maaseiah, and Mattithiah, and Elipheleh, and Mikneiah, and Obed-edom, 19and Jeiel, the porters. And the singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, with cymbals of brass to sound aloud. 20And Zechariah, and Aziel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Unni, and Eliab, and Maaseiah, and Benaiah, with psalteries, in the way of maidens. 21And Mattithiah, and Elipheleh, and Mikneiah, and Obed-edom, and Jeiel, and Azaziah, with harps after the octave to lead. 22And Chenaniah, chief of the Levites; for he instructed in bearing, for he was skilful. 23And Berechiah and Elkanah were door-keepers for the ark 24And Shebaniah, and Joshaphat, and Nathaneel, and Amasai, and Zechariah, and Benaiah, and Eliezer, the priests, blew with the trumpets before the ark of God; and Obed-edom and Jehiah were door-keepers for the ark.

25And David, and the elders of Israel, and the captains of thousands, were going to bring up the ark of the covenant of the Lord out of the house of Obededom 26with gladness. And when God helped the Levites bearing the ark of the covenant of the Lord, then they offered seven bullocks and seven rams. 27And David was clothed with a robe of byssus, and all the Levites bearing the ark, and the singers, and Chenaniah the master of the bearing [the singers]; and upon 28David was a linen ephod. And all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the Lord with shouting, and with sound of cornet, and with trumpets, and with 29cymbals sounding, with psalteries and harps. And when the ark of the covenant of the Lord came to the city of David, then Michal, daughter of Saul, looked out from the window, and saw King David leaping and playing; and she despised him in her heart.

1Ch_16:1.And they brought the ark of God, and set it in the tent that David had pitched for it; and they offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings before God. 2And David made an end of offering burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and blessed the people in the name of the Lord. 3And he dealt to every one of Israel, both man and woman, to every one a loaf of bread, and a measure [of wine], and a grape cake.

4And he appointed before the ark of the Lord ministers of the Levites, to record, and to thank and to praise the Lord God of Israel. 5Asaph the chief, and next to him Zechariah, Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel, and Mattithiah, and Eliab, and Benaiah, and Obed-edom, and Jeiel, with psalteries and harps; and 6Asaph sounding with cymbals. And Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests with 7trumpets continually before the ark of the covenant of God. On that day then David ordered for the first time to thank the Lord by Asaph and his brethren.

8     Thank ye the Lord, call on His name,

Make known His deed among the peoples.

9     Sing ye to Him, play ye to Him;

Muse on all His wonders.

10     Glory ye in His holy name;

Let the heart of them that seek the Lord be glad.

11     Seek ye the Lord and His strength,

Seek ye His face continually.

12     Remember His wonders that He hath done,

His signs, and the judgments of His mouth.

13     O ye seed of Israel His servant,

Ye sons of Jacob, His chosen.

14     He the Lord is our God,

His judgments are in all the earth.

15     Remember His covenant for ever—

The word He commanded to a thousand ages.

16     Which He made with Abraham,

And His oath unto Isaac.

17     And appointed it to Jacob for a statute,

To Israel for an everlasting covenant.

18     Saying, To thee I give the land of Canaan,

The line of your inheritance.

19     When ye were small in number,

Few, and strangers in it.

20     And they went from nation to nation,

And from one kingdom to another people.

21     He let no man do them wrong,

And reproved kings for their sake.

22     “Touch not mine anointed,

And do my prophets no harm.”

23     Sing ye to the Lord, all the earth;

Proclaim from day to day His salvation.

24     Tell ye among the nations His glory,

His wonders among all the peoples.

25     For great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised;

And He is to be feared above all gods.

26     For all the gods of the peoples are idols;

But the Lord made the heavens.

27     Majesty and honour are before Him,

Strength and gladness are in His place.

28     Give unto the Lord, ye kindreds of the people,

Give unto the Lord glory and strength.

29     Give to the Lord the glory due to His name;

Bring an oblation, and come before Him;

Worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness.

30     Tremble before Him, all the earth:

The world will also stand fast without moving.

31     Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice;

And let them sing among the nations, The Lord reigneth.

32     Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof;

Let the field rejoice, and all that is therein.

33     Then shall the trees of the wood sing out

Before the Lord; for He cometh to judge the earth.

34     Thank ye the Lord; for He is good;

For His mercy endureth for ever.

35     And say ye, Save us, O God of our salvation,

And gather us and deliver us from the heathen,

To thank Thy holy name,

To glory in Thy praise.

36     Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel,

For ever and ever.

And all the people said, Amen, and praised the Lord.

37And he left there, before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, Asaph and his brethren, to minister before the ark continually, for the day’s work in its day. 38And Obed-edom and their brethren sixty and eight; and Obed-edom, son of Jedithun, and Hosah, to be porters. 39And Zadok the priest, and his brethren the priests, before the tabernacle of the Lord, in the high place that was at Gibeon. 40To offer burnt-offerings to the Lord on the altar of burnt-offering continually morning and evening, and for all that is written in the law of the Lord, which He commanded Israel. 41And with them Heman and Jeduthun, and the rest that were chosen, who were expressed by name, to thank the Lord, that His mercy endureth for ever. 42And with them, Heman and Jeduthun, were trumpets and cymbals for loud sounding, and [other] instruments of God; and the sons of Jeduthun were at the gate. 43And all the people went every man to his house; and David turned in to bless his house.

EXEGETICAL

Preliminary Remark.—Instead of the brief description of the parallel text 2Sa_6:11-23, our author gives a detailed account: 1. Of the preparations for the solemn act of transferring the ark into its new sanctuary in Jerusalem,1Ch_15:1-24, including a. The erection of the tent for the reception of the ark, 1Ch_15:1; b. a conference of the king with the priests and Levites, 1Ch_15:2-16; and c. the selection of the Levites appointed for the chief part in the solemnity (and therefore designated by name), 1Ch_15:16 to 1Ch_24:2. Then follows the execution of the so prepared holy act itself, 1Ch_15:25 to 1Ch_16:3; at the close of which comes the description of the first solemn service before the ark in its new sanctuary on Zion, 1Ch_16:4-43, in-cluding the psalm of praise and thanks then sung, 1Ch_15:8-29. This long closing section is (except the last verse) peculiar to the Chronist. On its credibility, and especially on the genuineness and age of the psalm of praise and thanks, see at the close of these expositions.

1. The Preparation for the Removal; and first, a. The erection of the tent on Zion: 1Ch_15:1.—And he made him houses in the city of David. This may be understood of the building of other houses besides the palace built with the aid of Hiram of Tyre, 1Ch_14:1 (Berth., Kamph.); but as the verb used is òùׂä , not áðä , it appears rather to refer to the internal finishing of a palace for the abode of the king and his wives.—And he prepared a place for the ark of God. This was probably in the immediate neighbourhood of the king’s house adjoining it; for here the one of the two existing high priests, Abiathar the Ithamaride, who, since the massacre at Nob, was constantly about David (as it were his court or domestic priest, while Zadok of the house of Eleazar officiated at Gibeon), was to exercise his functions.—And pitched for it a tent, we may suppose, after the model of the old tabernacle still existing at Gibeon (1Ch_16:39 f., 1Ch_21:29; 1Ki_3:4 ff.), but only as a provisional sanctuary.

2. Continuation. b. The conference with the priests and Levites: 1Ch_15:2-15.—Then David said, namely, at the end of the three months, 1Ch_13:14.—None should carry, properly, “it is not to carry.” With this confession of the sole right of the Levites to carry the ark (comp. Num_1:50; Num_4:15; Num_7:9; Num_10:17), David acknowledges that it was unlawful to convey it on a waggon, 1Ch_13:7.

1Ch_15:3. And David gathered all Israel, by its natural representatives, the elders and captains of thousands; see 1Ch_15:25, and comp. 2Sa_6:15 : “ all the house of Israel.” Of this summons to a previous consultation in Jerusalem nothing further is reported, 2 Samuel 6 :

1Ch_15:4. And David assembled the sons of Aaron, and the Levites; he formed of these representatives of the priesthood an inner circle in the assembly of the people, to hear their counsel regarding the order of the solemnities. “ The sons of Aaron” are the high priests Zadok and Abiathar, 1Ch_15:11; the “Levites ” are the six chiefs named in 1Ch_15:5-10, with their brethren.

1Ch_15:5. Of the sons of Kohath: Uriel the chief; see 1Ch_6:9. The Kohathite chief is named first, because the ministry of the most holy, the carrying of the most holy vessels of the tabernacle, belonged to the Kohathites, the family from which Aaron the high priest sprang, Num_4:4; Num_4:15; Num_7:9 (Keil).—On the Merarite chief Asaiah, comp. 1Ch_4:15; on Joel, the chief of the sons of Gershom, 1Ch_6:21.

1Ch_15:8-10 name the chiefs of three other Kohathite families, those of Elizaphan (= Elzaphan son of Uzziel, Exo_6:22), of Hebron (son of Kohath, Exo_6:18; comp. 5:28), and of Uzziel. The last named is probably not different from the Kohathite Uzziel, father of Elizaphan, Exo_6:22; there are thus formed of the sons of this two houses, of which one is named after Elizaphan, the other after Uzziel himself, and not any of his other sons. There are then in all four Kohathite houses, with one Merarite and one Gershomite, here represented: a strong preference of the house of Kohath, which is not surprising, because the conveyance of the ark specially belonged to them.

1Ch_15:11. And David called Zadok (of Eleazar, 1Chr 5:27 ff.) and Abiathar (of Ithamar), the high priests, who then acted together; see above on 1Ch_15:1, and comp. 1Ch_24:3; 2Sa_15:24 ff; 2Sa_20:25.

1Ch_15:12. Ye chiefs of the Levites, literally, “ ye chiefs of the fathers of the Levites;” comp. 1Ch_8:6; 1Ch_8:10.—Sanctify yourselves with your brethren, properly, “ye and your brethren.” The “sanctifying” consisted in keeping from their wives, from contact with unclean things, and also in washing the body and the clothes; comp. Gen_35:2 with Exo_19:10; Exo_19:15, also 2Ch_30:3To (the place) I have prepared for it, àֶìÎäֲëִéðåֹúִé ìåֹ . The same elliptical construction (with omitted àֲùֶׁø , or immediate connection of the relative sentence with the preposition) see in 2Ch_1:4; comp. 1Ch_29:3; 2Ch_16:9; 2Ch_30:18; Neh_8:10 (Ew. § 333, b).

1Ch_15:13. For because ye were not at the beginning, or “ye were not those who bare the ark.” “At the beginning,” on the former occasion, when three months before the ark was brought from Kiriath-jearim, 13. On the peculiar construction ìְîַáָּøִàùׁåֹðָä (from ìְîָä and áָּøִàùׁåֹðָä ), comp. îַäÎúְּìָàָä = îַúְּìָàָä Mal_1:13, and Ew. § 91, d. ìְîָä in this compound signifies “for this, that,” “because;” comp. Ew. § 222, a, 353, a.The Lord our God broke out upon us (1Ch_13:11), because we sought Him not aright, because we approached Him not in the manner prescribed by law, had neglected to testify our reverence to Him by keeping the legal regulation, that only Levites should bear the holy things

1Ch_15:15. And the sons of the Levites bear the ark of God. An anticipation, occasioned by that which was said in the verse before of the immediate execution of the order for the purification of the Levites. See the particulars, 1Ch_15:25 ff.—Upon their shoulders, with staves upon them, upon their shoulders. On îåֹèָä (from îåֹè , “waver”), the pole, comp. Num_13:23 (also Lev_25:13; Eze_34:27). In the Pentat. the poles are besides called áַּãִּéí Exo_25:13 ff., etc.

3. Close. c. The appointment of the Levitical singers for the solemnity: 1Ch_15:16-24.—To appoint their brethren the singers with instruments, properly, “with instruments of song,” that is, to accompany the singing. Such ëְּìֵé ùִׁéø (comp. Neh_12:36) are now named in three classes: 1. ðְáָìִéí , øáëôÞñéá (Sept.), or nablia (Vulg.), guitarlike instruments, consisting of an oblong chest with flat bottom and convex sounding board, over which strings of wire were stretched, called by Luther, in accordance with the Sept. (and the Arab, santir), psalteries, by others “harps” or nablia; 2. áִּðֹּøåֹú (Sept. êßíõñáé , Vulg. lyrœ), harps or lute-like instruments, rendered by Luther not unsuitably, “harps,” though lutes would perhaps be more correct [rather should the former be called lutes]; 3. îְöִìְúַּéִí (equivalent to the older. term öֶìְöְìִéí 2Sa_6:5; Psa_150:5), here more fully defined by the epithet îַùְׁîִéòִéí , “clear-sounding” (making to hear), which belongs neither to all the three instruments (Berth.), nor to the too remote “their brethren the singers” (Kamph.), but, as in 1Ch_15:19; 1Ch_15:28; 1Ch_16:5; 1Ch_16:42, only to îְöִìְúַּéִí ; comp. Böttch. Neue exeg.-krit. Aehrenl. iii. 223 f. (who, however, assigns to the term the unsuitable meaning, “beating time”).—To lift up the sound with gladness, to express or signify joy; comp. 1Ch_15:25; 2Ch_23:18; 2Ch_29:30. This telic clause refers not merely to the clear-sounding cymbals, but to the chief sentence.

1Ch_15:17. And the Levites appointed Heman son of Joel. That this Heman was of the family of the Kohathites, and Asaph of the Gershonites (comp. 1Ch_5:18; 1Ch_5:24), is not here stated; only of the third song-master Ethan is his family, or his descent from Merari, expressly mentioned. On the name of Ethan’s father, Kushaiah, see Crit. Note.

1Ch_15:18. And with them their brethren of the second degree. On äַîִּùְׁðִéí , “the second in rank,” comp. the sing. äַîִּùְׁðֶä , 2Ki_23:4 and 1Ch_16:5.—Zechariah and Jaaziel. For the certainly spurious áֵּï after æְëַøְéָäåּ , see Crit. Note. The here named Jaaziel is certainly identical with the Aziel, 1Ch_15:20, and with the Jeiel, 1Ch_16:5, or rather these names are to be changed into the present one.—And Obed-edom and Jeiel the porters. The office of doorkeeper does not exclude their acting also as musicians, as 1Ch_15:21 shows. After Jeiel, as the same verse teaches, the name Azaziah must have fallen out, so that originally there were not thirteen but fourteen persons named as musicians of the second order. After these singers and musicians have been mentioned by name (and in two orders or ranks, 1Ch_15:17-18), they are again brought forward, 1Ch_15:19-21, divided into three choirs, after the musical instruments or. which they played.

1Ch_15:19. The Cymbal Players: Heman, Asaph, and Ethan.—With cymbals of brass to sound aloud, they were bound, had this to do. The cymbals were wholly of brass; comp. 1Co_13:1 : ÷áëêὸò ἠ÷ῶí , and Joseph. Antiq.vii. 12. 1 Chronicles 3 : êýìâáëÜ ôå ἦí ðëáôÝá êáὶ ìåãÜëá ÷Üëêåá . The “loud-sounding” ( äַùְׁîִéòַ ) of the three cymbal players was designed to beat time or direct; for in 1Ch_15:17 they are placed before as leaders.

1Ch_15:20. The Players on Psalteries or Nablia: Zechariah and Seven Others. Of these, who are here repeated with slight changes from 1Ch_15:18 (instead of Jaaziel, the second is here called Aziel; and at the end of the first series stands here Maaseiah before Benaiah, there inversely), it is here stated that they played with psalteries in the way of maidens. òַìÎòֲìָîåֹú is certainly the name of that tone, which sounds in a high, clear voice, that is, the soprano, as the following òַìÎäַùְּׁîִéðִéú , “after (or on) the octave,” is equivalent to “on the bass,” al ottava bassa. Comp. Del. on Psa_6:1; Psa_46:1.

1Ch_15:21. The Harp or Lute Players: Mattaniah and Five Others.—With harps after the octave to lead. How this leading or directing expressed by ðöç is distinct from that which is expressed, 1Ch_15:19, by äùׁîéò , we can no longer define; at all events, it was not such directing as could belong only to the music-master. Comp. Delitzsch on Psa_4:1.

1Ch_15:22-24 bring forward the other Levites engaged in the solemn procession.—And Chenaniah, chief of the Levites, for bearing. áְּîַùָּׂà (or as perhaps is to be read, with R. Norzi, áַּîַּùָּׂà ) is scarcely to be understood of any presiding or overseeing action of Chenaniah (as the Sept. ὁ ἄñ÷ùí ôῶí ᾠäῶí , Vulg. prophetiœ prœerat ad prœcinendam melodiam; Luth. “to instruct in singing;” L. Lavater, supremus musicus; Kamph. and others, “the leader in execution,” etc.). The phrase is rather to be referred to the bearing of the ark, which, according to 1Ch_15:23 f., is here in question (comp. also îַùָּׂà in 2Ch_35:3 and Num_4:19).With this agrees, rightly conceived, 1Ch_15:27, as well as the later mention of Chenaniah in 1Ch_26:29, where he is placed over the outward business of the Levites (rightly Berth. and Keil; undecided Kamph.).—Instructed in bearing; for he was skilful, acquainted with the ritual, experienced in the ceremonial relative to the bearing of the ark. Whether we take éָñֹø as inf. abs. Kal in the sense of the verb.-fin. éñø , “instruct” (J. H. Mich., Gesen., etc.), or as imperf. of ùָׂøַø = ñøø , “be chief, command” (Berth., etc.), or as a subst. in the sense of “instructor” (Keil), the meaning of presiding, directing, leading, is at all events expressed by the word.

1Ch_15:23. And Berechiah and Elkanah were doorkeepers for the ark, who were to guard not so much the doors of the ark itself as those of the tent that gave access to it; thus, in general, to guard the ark. As these two at first, and then at the close of the following verse, Obed-edom and Jehiah also, are named as doorkeepers of the ark, we must regard the former two as going before the ark during the solemn procession, and the latter two as following after. Close by the ark, however, either immediately before it or on the two sides, the seven priests blowing trumpets, 1Ch_15:24, may be supposed to go.

1Ch_15:24. And Shebaniah … blew with trumpets before the ark of God. Whether the Kethib îַ ֽçֲöֹöְøִéí (denom. from çֲöֹöְøָä ) or the Keri îַçְöְøִéí (Hiph. of çöø ) is read does’ not affect the sense. The blowing of trumpets here is according to the prescription, Num_10:1-10, and the example of the compassing of Jericho, Jos_6:4-6.—And Obed-edom and Jehiah were doorkeepers for the ark. Of these, Obed-edom was a son of Jeduthun, 1Ch_16:38, and so perhaps different from him of the same name among the singers, 1Ch_15:18; 1Ch_15:21 (though he also, 1Ch_15:18, is called a doorkeeper). Perhaps also the Jehiah named with him is not to be identified with Jehiel there (1Ch_15:18; 1Ch_15:21) named with Obed-edom (against Raschi, Berth., etc.). It is plain that according to all this the whole procession included the following divisions:—1. The singers arranged in three choirs; 2. Chenaniah the captain of the bearers (as it were marshal); 3. Two doorkeepers; 4. Seven priests blowing trumpets close by the ark; 5. Two doorkeepers. After these followed, 1Ch_15:25, the king, with the elders and captains of thousands.

4. The Execution of that which was resolved in the Assembly: 1Ch_15:25 to 1Ch_16:3.—And David and the elders of Israel, and the captains of thousands (commanders over the thousands, chiliarchs). åַֽéְäִé ãָåִéã åâå× connects this with 1Ch_15:3, after the details concerning the preparations have intervened. The parallel 2Sa_6:12 wants this connecting åéäé , and does not mention the elders and chiliarchs along with David.

1Ch_15:26. And when God helped the Levites, permitted them without danger or harm to convey the ark, thus to escape the fate of Uzza. The offering of seven bullocks and seven rams seems to have been made at the close of the procession, after the conveyance had been successfully conducted. Otherwise 2Sa_6:13, where (at least in the Masoretic text) David, after the bearers of the ark had made the first six steps, offered a sacrifice. It is probable that both accounts are original, and that the two must be harmonized and combined.

1Ch_15:27. And David was clothed with a robe of byssus. Instead of these words ( åְãָåִéã îְëֻøְáָּì áִּîְòִéì áּåּõ ), 2Sa_6:14 presents åְãָåִéã îְëַøְëֵּø áְּëָìÎòæֹ (with the addition ìִôְðֵé éְäåָֹä ). That îëøáì is corrupted from îëøëø , and áîòéì áåõ from áëìÎòæ (Berth., etc.; also Böttcher, Neue Aehrenlese, iii. 224), might be assumed, if the ìôðé éäåä , wanting in our text, did not create a difficulty. For this assumption, according to which the Chronist shall have thought it unbecoming to speak of David (and, with Berth., the Levites also) dancing, though in15:29 and 1Ch_13:8 he states, or at least implies, this fact quite freely, it is at all events easier to regard both texts as abbreviations of one and the same narrative contained in the common sources of our author, which, besides the dancing of David (which the Chronist merely presupposes, while the author of 2 Samuel gives it prominence), contained full reports of the clothing of David, and of the Levites around him. It is accordingly to be supposed that the Chronist has taken only these latter reports in full, “because the statement concerning the clothing of the king and the Levites appeared more important for the purpose of describing fully the religious aspect of the procession, as this import of it was more conspicuous here; for the dress which the king wore had a priestly character” (Keil; comp. Movers, p. 168). That the verb ëּøáì , “to be wrapt up,” belongs to the later usage of speech, or rather, is properly Chaldaic (Dan_3:21), can scarcely bring into question the justice of this harmonistic assumption (against Böttch.).—And all the Levites … and the singers, and Chenaniah. To these also obviously applies the being “clothed with a robe of byssus,” which is first said of David. All these, who are here in apposition with David, are described as adorned with priestly attire, with the meïl of byssus (comp. the byssus attire of the Levites and singers in the dedication of the temple by Solomon, 2Ch_5:12, and for the meïl, the upper garment of distinguished persons, 1Sa_2:19; 1Sa_15:27; 1Sa_18:4; 1Sa_24:5; Ezr_9:3; Job_29:14). The closing sentence, “and upon David was a linen ephod,” first names the distinguishing part of the clothing of the king as the sovereign of the priestly people (comp. 2Sa_6:14). The designation of Chenaniah as “the master of the bearing” ( äַùַּׂø äַîַּùָּׂà with the double article; comp. Ew. § 290, d) is to be understood according to 1Ch_15:22; the unmeaning: “the singers,” after äַîַּùָּׂà , appears spurious (see Crit. Note); even if we understood îַùָּׂà of musical performance, this addition would be disturbing.

1Ch_15:28. With shouting, and with sound of cornet, etc. Shorter and simpler 2Sa_6:15, without naming the several instruments.

1Ch_15:29. Then Michal … saw King David leaping and playing. Instead of îø÷ã åîùä÷ 2Sa_6:16 has îְôַæֵּæ åּîְëַøְëֵּø . This brief reference to the well-known history, fully reported in 2Sa_6:16; 2Sa_6:20-23, of the dispute between David and Michal, shows sufficiently that the Chronist did not wish to be silent concerning this matter from dogmatic or æsthetic considerations. Moreover, 1Ch_15:29 to 1Ch_16:3 agrees in all essentials with 2Sa_6:16-19 a.1Ch_16:3. To every one a loaf of bread ( ëִּëַּø ìֶçֶí , the more usual phrase for the rarer çַìַּú ì× used in 2 Samuel 6, 19), and a measure (of wine), and a grape cake. The àֶùְׁôַּø , occurring only here and 2 Samuel, is explained by the Vulg., Chald., and Syr., and by several Rabbis and moderns (Ew., Berth., Kamph.), as “a piece of flesh” (roast), as if from ôַּø , ox, and àֵùׁ , or rather from ùׁøó = ùׁôø , “ to burn.” But the reference of the word to ùׁôø , in the sense of the Aethiopic safara = metiri, “to measure,” is better ascertained, according to which, àùׁôø (with à prosthet.) signifies a portion of drink, a measure of wine (de Dieu, Gesen., Rödiger, Keil, etc.). On àֲùִׁéùָׁä , “grape or raisin cake” (from àùׁùׁ , to make firm, press), comp. Son_2:5, Hos_3:1, and the equivalent öîå÷éí , 1Ch_12:40.

5. The First Solemn Service before the Ark in Jerusalem, and the Institution of Divine Service in general: 1Ch_16:4-43.—a. The Levite appointed for service by David: 1Ch_16:4-6.—And he appointed (properly, “gave;” comp. 1Ch_16:7) before the ark of the Lord ministers of the Levites, namely, as the addition “to record, etc.” shows, singers and players for the purpose of sacred singing, Levitical ministers ( ëåéôïõñãïῦíôáò , Sept.).—To record, and to thank, and to praise. ìְäַæְëִּéø , literally, “to bring to remembrance, to pray at the àַæְëָּøָä of the meat-offering” (Lev_2:2; comp. Psa_38:1; Psa_60:1, and Del. on the first passage). ìְäåֹãåֹú , properly, “to confess” (Sept., ἐîïìïëïãåῖóèáé ), refers to the singing of psalms that prominently confess and express thanks to God, as ìְäַìֵּì refers to the praises of the hallelujah songs.

1Ch_16:5.Asaph the chief, and next to him Zechariah, literally, “and as his second, his next man (follower);” comp. Est_10:3. Of the three song-masters and fourteen musicians named in the list 1Ch_15:19-21, a part only are named again: of the song-masters only Asaph, and of the musicians only nine (namely, six of the eight nebel-players and three of the six kinnor-players), and also, 1Ch_16:6, of the seven trumpet-blowers, only two, Benaiah and Jahaziel, the latter of whom did not appear in 1Ch_15:24. As we possess no parallel report to compare with the contents of our section, nothing definite can be conjectured of the relation of the present names to those of the longer series, and it must be left uncertain’ whether Jahaziel be identical with the Eliezer named, 1Ch_16:24, along with Benaiah.

6. Continuation. b. The song of praise and thanks by Asaph and his brethren: 1Ch_16:7-36. On that day then David ordered for the first time . . . by Asaph, etc. Properly, “then David gave over . . . by the hand of Asaph;” ðָúַï áְּéַã , here “to hand over, arrange.” áָּøֹàùׁ not “by the chief, by Asaph,” but “ first, for the first time;” comp. îֵøֹàùׁ , Isa_40:21. This is the first introduction of the new cultus. Along with Asaph are named “his brethren,” the Levites arranged with (and under) him, enumerated in 1Ch_16:5-6. We may observe, moreover, how clearly this verse, especially by its áָּøֹàùׁ , announces the following song as an ideal composition, characterizing only in general that which was to be sung by the musicians, but not expressing a stereotype form. Had the author wished to convey the sense that the song was sung for all time so as he communicated it, and not otherwise, he would have added, “and he commanded them thus to sing,” or, “to sing this song.”

1Ch_16:8 ff. Thank ye the Lord, call on His name, etc. Of the eight strophes of the song, the first four (1Ch_16:8-22) correspond to the opening of Psalms 105 (1Ch_16:1-15); the next three (1Ch_16:23-33) to Psalms 96; the last (1Ch_16:34-36) to the first and last two verses of Psalms 106, with some unimportant variations which are here to be noted.—First Strophe: 1Ch_16:8-11 ( = Psa_105:1-4): Summons to sing praise to the Lord and to seek His face.—Second Strophe: 1Ch_16:12-14 ( = Psa_105:5-7): Summons to think of the wonders of the Lord and His judgments. Here are the first variants, namely, 1Ch_16:12, ôִּéäåּ instead of ôִּéå , and, 1Ch_16:13, æֶøַò éִùְׂøָàֵì instead of æ× àַáְøָäָí of which the latter only is of any consequence. On account of the parallelism with the “sons of Jacob,” the “seed of Israel” appears the better reading.—Third Strophe: 1Ch_16:15-18 ( = Psa_105:8-11): Summons to think of the covenant made by the Lord with the fathers.—Remember His-covenant for ever.Psalms 105 rather: “He remembereth, etc.” ( æָëַø for æִëְøåּ ). Our reading, corresponding better with the application of the song to the end proposed in 1Ch_16:7, appears to be substituted for the more original one of the Psalm.

1Ch_16:16. And His oath unto Isaac. For ìְéִöְçָ÷ Psa_105:9 presents the weaker form ìְéִùְׂçָ÷ (found also in Amo_7:9; Jer_33:26), a critically unimportant variant, like that in 1Ch_16:18 a, where àֶøֶõ áְּðָòַï stands for àֶúÎàãõÎë .—Fourth Strophe: 1Ch_16:19-22 ( = Psa_105:12-15): Reason of the summons to remember the covenant of the Lord with the fathers, because the Lord has so truly and mightily protected them according to His promise.—When ye were small in number. Instead of áִּäְéåֹúְëֶí Psa_105:12 presents áְּäִéåֹúָí . To address the children of Israel again corresponds better with the aim of the Psalm; this variant is thus similar to that in 1Ch_16:15, but affords no presumption in favour of the priority of this or that reading.

1Ch_16:20. And from one kingdom.Psalms 105 omits the “and” ( åְ before îִîַּîְìָëָä ); critically unimportant, as also the two following variants (1Ch_16:21, ìְàִéùׁ for àָãָí , and, 1Ch_16:22, åּáִðְáִéàַé for åְìִðְáִéàַé ).—Fifth Strophe: vers, 23–27 ( = Psa_96:1-6): All the world shall concur in praise of the greatness and glory of God.—The first verse of this passage seems compounded of the first two verses of Psalms 96, the first members being omitted. Whether this be an abbreviating process of the Chronist, or an amplifying one of the Psalmist, it is hard to determine; much may be said for each of the two assumptions (see Keil).

1Ch_16:27. Strength and gladness are in His place ( åְçֶãְåָä áִּîְ÷ֹîåֹ ; comp. for this late, but in Aram, frequent, çֶãְåָä , Ezr_6:16; Neh_8:10). On the contrary, Psa_46:6 : “strength and beauty in His sanctuary” ( åְúִôְàֶøֶú áְּîִ÷ְãָùׁåֹ )—Sixth Strophe: 1Ch_16:28-30 (= Psa_96:7-9): All nations shall worship God with offerings and confessions.

1Ch_16:29. Give, to the Lord the glory due to His name, etc. Instead of two, this verse has, to our surprise, three members: the first two correspond to Psa_96:8; 1Ch_16:9 there to our 1Ch_16:29 c and 1Ch_16:30 a. The disturbance of the parallel in our verse rests on this, that after 1Ch_16:31 a ( = Psa_96:11 a) the verse-member Psa_96:10 a is placed, but Psa_96:10 c is altogether omitted. Thus, in our text, the verse beginning with “give to the Lord the glory;” on the contrary, in Psalms 96, that beginning with “say among the heathen” (1Ch_16:10), forms the exception to the otherwise constant bipartition of the verse. It is impossible, however, to arrive at a certain result on which side the priority lies (see on 1Ch_16:31).—Bring an oblation, and come before Him.Psa_96:8 b: “and come to His courts” ( ìְçַöְøåֹúָéå for ìְôָðָéå ). This variant is similar to that in 1Ch_16:27, where “in His sanctuary” of the Psalm is changed into the more general “in His place,” because the mention of the “sanctuary” (as here of the “courts”) does not seem to comport well with the time and aim of the present song, which was sung before the erection of the temple.

1Ch_16:30. Tremble before Him, all the earth. For îִìְּôָðָéå Psa_96:9 has îִôָּðָéå , an unimportant difference,—Seventh Strophe: 1Ch_16:31-33 ( = Psa_96:10-13): Even the inanimate creation will exult before the Lord of all nations coming to judgment. 1Ch_16:31 a corresponds to Psa_96:11 a, but 1Ch_16:31 b to Psa_96:10 a.And let them say among the nations, etc., is in Psa_96:10 a: “say among the nations” ( àִîְøåּ instead of åְéֹàîְøåּ ). it is too much to say that this summons, addressed to the Israelites after the words “tremble before Him, all the earth” (which there go immediately before, as 1Ch_16:9 b), yields a “rather tame thought,” and speaks for the priority of the text of Chronicles (Keil). The position of the present summons among mere appeals to the representatives of inanimate nature, as the heavens, the earth, the sea, the field, may appear surprising and disturbing. There is something excited and wavering in the line of thought and mode of expression, there as well as here.

1Ch_16:32 b. Let the field rejoice, etc. For éַֽòֲìֹõ äַùּׂøֶä Psa_90:12 a presents éַֽòֲìֹæ ùָׂãַé , in which the poetic and archaic ùָׂãַé , instead of the prosaic äַùָּׂãֶä seems not without significance.

1Ch_16:33. Then shall the trees of the wood sing out. For this Psa_96:12 b has “all trees of the wood.” The second member of this verse corresponds to the first in Psa_96:13, as far as the repetition of “for He cometh” ëִּé áָà , which occurs only once here. Psa_96:13 b, the close of the whole Psalm, is wanting in our text, which the defenders of the priority of the latter explain thus: that when the contents of our verses 23–33 were made a distinct Psalm, it was found necessary to make at the close a suitable addition; whereas the matter may as well be explained by the abbreviating habit of our author (as the later compiler of the present song).—Eighth Strophe: 1Ch_16:34-36 ( = Psa_106:1; Psa_106:47-48): Repeated summons to thank God, and to pray for His further help, with the closing doxology.—Thank ye the Lord: for He is good, etc. This verse is found not merely at the head of Psalms 106, but also of Psalms 107, 118, 136. (comp. also Psalms 118, 29 and Jer_33:11); as an old and favourite liturgical form, it is not necessarily to be regarded as taken from Psalms 106 in particular.

1Ch_16:35. And say ye, Save us, O God of our salvation. Similar, but not verbally so,Psa_106:47, where “and say ye” is wanting, and for “God of our salvation” stands “the Lord our God.”—And gather us and deliver us from the heathen. For this Psa_106:47 has: “and gather us from the heathen.” The two following members agree verbally with the parallel verse of the Psalm.—Blessed be the Lord, etc. This closing doxology, which recurs exactly in Psa_106:48, forms there the close of the fourth, book of the Psalter, together with the words: “and let all the people say, Amen. Praise ye the Lord,” which are here changed into the historical notice: “and all the people said, Amen, and praised the Lord” ( åַéֹּàîְøåּ for the jussive åְàָîַø , and åְäַìֵּì éְäåָֹä for äַìְּìåּ éָäּ ). Even in these last deviations from the similar passages of the Psalter there is nothing that could prove with certainty the priority of our text, and a partly imitative, partly devious, procedure of the Psalmist. With regard to the doxology áøåêְ éäåä åâå× which was originally nothing else than the liturgical close of the fourth book (analogous to those at the close of Psalms 41, 72, , 89), it is much more probable that our author changed, for his own purpose, this doxologincal formula, which may have been attached to Psalms 106. long ago, from liturgical use. And the more probable this must appear to the unprejudiced mind, the more clearly all the other differences between our text and that of the corresponding Psalms appear as alterations, occasioned by the revising and compiling habit of the Chronist, of that which was before him in the Psalter. Comp. the closing remarks.

7. Division of the Levites and Priests for Divine Service (as continuation and close of the list of Levitical singers and players in 1Ch_16:4-6): 1Ch_16:37-43.—Asaph and his brethren. The ìְ before the accus. of the object, according to later usage.—For the day’s work in its day, literally, “for the matter of the day on its day,” that is, according to the service required for every day; comp. 2Ch_8:14; 2Ch_31:16.

1Ch_16:38. And Obed-edom and their brethren sixty and eight. That here should be read, according to what follows: “and Obed-edom and Hosah and their brethren,” see Crit. Note. If, indeed, in the next clause of our verse: “and Obed-edom … and Hosah to be porters,” another Obed-edom were meant, as the distinction of this as “son of Jedithun” (possibly, 1Ch_26:4, a Korhite Jedithun, and not the Merarite singer Jeduthun) appears to indicate, some other name than that of Hosah must be supplied along with the former Obed-edom. Even in 1Ch_15:21; 1Ch_15:24 there seem to be two different Obed-edoms, a singer, 1Ch_16:21, and a porter, 1Ch_16:24. Yet the diversity of the two named in our verse is by no means certain; for in 1Ch_26:4-8, of Obed-edom with his sons and brothers, sixty-two men are mentioned as porters, which nearly agrees with the present number sixty-eight, and seems to point to the identity of the first-mentioned and the second Obed-edom. 1Ch_16:42 of our chapter also shows clearly enough the identity of the present Jedithun with Jeduthun. In the notorious defectiveness of the text, besides, we cannot attain to a certain decision.

1Ch_16:39. And Zadok the priest, and his brethren the priests åéòæá , 1Ch_16:37, still acts as the governing verb. For the continued religious use of the sanctuary at Gibeon under David, see on 1Ch_15:1. It is to be remarked that Zadok is designated only as priest, not as high priest, as he was made first by Solomon; see 1Ki_2:27; 1Ki_2:35.

1Ch_16:40. To offer burnt-offerings to the Lord on the altar of burnt-offering. The mention here of burnt-offerings only at Gibeon proves nothing against the assumption that they were also offered in the sanctuary at Jerusalem; and 1Ch_21:26; 1Ch_21:30 shows directly and expressly that these offerings were made here also, no doubt under the direction of Abiathar (comp. 1Ch_18:16).—Continually morning and evening. Comp. the prescriptions of the law, Exo_29:38; Num_28:3; Num_28:6.—And for all (that was prescribed besides the daily burnt-offering; comp. Numbers 28) that is written. ìְëָìÎäַáָּúåּá , briefly for ìַֽòֲùׂåֹú áָּìÎäë× .

1Ch_16:41. And with them, etc., with Zadok and his brethren. This refers to the singers at the sanctuary in Gibeon, where Heman, Jeduthun (Ethan), and a number of subordinates were appointed. The Chronist points indeed to a list before him, in which the Gibeonite singers were named (on ðִ÷ְּáåּ áְּùֵׁîåֹú , comp. 1Ch_12:31), but does not specify them, because the singers under Asaph at Jerusalem, who are enumerated 1Ch_16:4-6, interested him most.

1Ch_16:42.And with them, Heman and Jeduthun, were trumpets and cymbals. So, according to the Masoretic reading, which, however, appears suspicious, from the absence of the names Heman and Jeduthun in the Sept. (comp. Crit. Note), and gives no very suitable sense. If we erase the two names, the sense comes out: “and with them were, that is, they had trumpets and cymbals,” a phrase somewhat strange, but still affording a suitable sense, which is at all events to be preferred to the artificial and forced emendation of Bertheau (“And Heman and Jeduthun were playing aloud with trumpets and cymbals, and with them the others chosen, with song-instruments of God”).—For loud sounding, ìְîַùְׁîִéòִéí . This epithet belonging to the îְöִìְúַּéִí defines the cymbals as giving the tone, or intoning the melody, and thus being a means of leading the song for the song-masters Heman and Jeduthun; comp. on 1Ch_15:16; 1Ch_15:19.—And (other) instruments of God, other instruments of religious music besides those named, especially psalteries and harps.—And the sons of Jeduthun were at the gate; they were appointed to guard the entrance of the Gibeonite tabernacle. These are obviously Obed-edom, Hosah, and their brethren, who had been designated, 1Ch_16:38, as doorkeepers.

1Ch_16:43. And all the people went every man to his house; essentially as in 2Sa_6:19-20, where this closing verse of our chapter has its parallel in an otherwise much more concise report. The narrative there added, of David’s altercation with Michal (comp. 1Ch_15:29), our author omits as a scene of a purely domestic character, unsuitable to his purpose.—And David turned in to bless his house, on this festive day, as he had before (1Ch_16:2) blessed the whole people in the name of the Lord.

Appendix: On the Credibility of the Contents of 1 Chronicles 16

As 1 Chronicles 12, notwithstanding its exclusive transmission by our author, makes the impression of the highest credibility, the statistical data and registers also of our section, just because they are mostly of a concrete and detailed kind, afford the warrant of a true rendering of the historical facts. Important there as well as here is the reference to greater and richer registers, that must have served the Chronist as sources, without being exhausted by him; comp. the characteristic àֲùֶׁøÎðִ÷ְּáåּ áְּùֵׁîåֹú 1Ch_12:31, 1Ch_16:41, and such specifications of names as 1Ch_16:4-6 and 1Ch_16:38 ff., which clearly indicate in the author a process of abstracting and contracting more copious lists. It is manifest enough that he was in a position, as belonging himself to the