Lange Commentary - 1 Chronicles 22:1 - 22:19

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Lange Commentary - 1 Chronicles 22:1 - 22:19


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This Chapter Verse Commentaries:

c. David’s Arrangements for the Building of the Temple; other Spiritual and Temporal Regulations; last Will and Death.—Ch. 22–29

á . Provisions for the Building of the Temple: 1 Chronicles 22

1Ch_22:1 And David said, This is the house of the Lord God, and this is the altar of burnt-offering for Israel.

2And David commanded to gather the strangers that were in the land of Israel; and he appointed masons to hew square stones to build the house of God. 3And David prepared iron in abundance for the nails for the doors of 4the gates, and for braces; and brass in abundance without weight. And cedar-trees without number; for the Zidonians and Tyrians brought much cedar-wood to David. 5And David said, Solomon my son is young and tender, and the house to be builded for the Lord must be highly magnifical for name and glory in all countries: I will now prepare for it: and David prepared abundantly before his death.

6And he called for Solomon his son, and charged him to build a house forthe Lord God of Israel. 7And David said to Solomon, My Song of Solomon , 1 had it in mind to build a house unto the name of the Lord my God. 8But the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Thou hast shed much blood, and made great wars; thou shalt not build a house unto my name, because thou hast shed much blood on the earth in my sight. 9Behold, a son shall be born to thee, who shall be a man of rest; and I will give him rest from all his enemies around; for Solomon shall be his name, and I will give peace and rest unto Israel in his days. 10He shall build a house to my name; and he shall be my son, and I will be his father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever. 11Now, my son, the Lord be with thee; and prosper 12thou, and build the house of the Lord thy God, as He hath said of thee. Also the Lord will give thee wisdom and understanding, and ordain thee over Israel, that thou may est keep the law of the Lord thy God. 13Then shalt thou prosper, if thou takest heed to fulfil the statutes and judgments which the Lord commanded Moses concerning Israel: be firm and strong; fear not, nor 14be dismayed. And, behold, in my trouble I have prepared for the house of the Lord a hundred thousand talents of gold, and a thousand thousand talents of silver, and of brass and of iron without weight; for it is in abundance: and I have prepared timber and stone, and thou shalt add thereto. 15And with thee are workers in abundance, hewers and carvers of stone and of timber, and all skilful men in all work. 16Of the gold, the silver, and the brass, and the iron there is no number: arise and do, and the Lord be with thee.

17And David commanded all the princes of Israel to help Solomon his son: 18Is not the Lord your God with you? and hath He not given you rest on every side? For He hath given the inhabitants of the land into my hand; 19and the land is subdued before the Lord, and before His people. Now give your heart and your soul to seek the Lord your God; and arise and build the sanctuary of the Lord God, to bring the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and the holy vessels of God, into the house that is to be built to the name of the Lord.

EXEGETICAL

1. Connection with the Foregoing Section: 1Ch_22:1.—The present chapter, which opens the second half of David’s history referring to the inner side of his government, is, by its introductory verse, closely connected with the foregoing account of the pestilence, and the consequent elevation of the floor of Oman to be the place of sacrifice for the king. The further accounts, relating directly or indirectly to the security of David’s kingdom for his successor, to the end of the book, are thus in a suitable way connected with the last-mentioned important event in the external history of the government of David.—This is the house of the Lord God, or: “shall be a house of the Lord God.” David gives this determination to the former threshing-floor on the same ground that moved Jacob to consecrate his resting-place at Luz to be a Bethel (Gen_28:17), because Jehovah had there revealed to him His saving presence.

2. The Preparation of Materials for the future Temple: 1Ch_22:2-5.—And David commanded to gather the strangers that were in the land of Israel, the descendants of the Canaanites subdued in the conquest of the land, who lived as bondmen under his government; comp. 2Ch_8:7-10 and 1Ch_2:16-17, where the number of these bondmen under Solomon is stated to be 150,000, whom he employed as bearers and workmen in building the temple.—Masons to hew square stones. Comp. 1 Kings 5:17, 31; also the simple âָּæִéú , square stones, 1Ki_6:36; 1Ki_7:9 ff.; Exo_20:25; Isa_9:9.

1Ch_22:3. For the nails for the doors of the gates, and for braces. ìַֽîְçַáְּøåֹú , properly, “for joining things” (Sept. óôñïöåῖò ; more correctly Vulg. commissurœ atque juncturœ); comp. 2Ch_34:11, where, however, braces of wood are meant.

1Ch_22:4. For the Zidonians and Tyrians (= Phenicians; comp. Ezr_3:7) brought much cedar-wood to David; this at first naturally, as an article of trade for the exports of Palestine, corn, wine, fruit, etc., not yet by a contract of supply for building the temple, such as Solomon afterwards made with Hiram, 1Ki_5:15 if.

1Ch_22:5. Solomon my son is young and tender. So ( ðַòַø åָøָêְ , parvulus et delicatus, Vulg.) David names Solomon also, 1Ch_29:1, in one of his last speeches to the people, although, born shortly after the Syrian Ammonite wars (2Sa_12:24), he must have been at this time, shortly before David’s end, above twenty years of age. But even shortly after the beginning of his reign, Solomon calls himself ðַòַø ÷ָèåֹï , 1Ki_3:7; comp., for example, also Benjamin, Gen. 43:44; Joshua, Exo_33:11; Rehoboam, 2Ch_13:7, etc.—And the house to be builded for the Lord must be highly magnifical (properly, “great to make”). ìְîַòְìָä , properly, “upward,” “above measure great;” comp. on 14:2.—For name and glory in all countries, that it tend to the glory of the Lord in all countries; comp. 14:17.—I will now prepare for it. The meaning of this cheerful offering is somewhat weakened, if, with the Vulg. (prœparabo ergo, etc.) and Luther (“therefore will I make preparation”), we take ðָà as a particle of inference.

3. The Charge to Solomon to build the Temple: 1Ch_22:6-16. This charge is obviously to be regarded as given to Solomon shortly before the death of David; see the ìִôְðֵé îåֹúåֹ at the close of 1Ch_22:5. The whole address on to 1Ch_22:16, besides being a legacy of the predecessor to his successor, is therefore to be regarded in some measure as parallel to 1Ki_2:2-9, and as essentially contemporary with the contents of 1 Chronicles 28, 24 of our book. On its perhaps not strictly historical but ideal character, which is common to it with those addresses of David in 1 Chronicles 28, 29, see Introd. § 6, No. 6.

1Ch_22:7. On the Keri áְּðִé to be preferred to the Kethib áְּðåֹ , see Crit. Note.—I had it in mind, literally, “I, it was in my heart;” quite so (with the same emphatic position of àֲðִé before òִí ìְáָáִé ) also 1Ch_28:2. The phrase: “it is or was in my heart,” for: “I have (had) in mind,” appears also in 2Ch_1:11; 2Ch_6:7 f., 9:1, 24:4, 29:10, as in other historical books, Jos_14:7; 1Ki_8:17 f., 10:2.

1Ch_22:8. But the word of the Lord came unto me, saying. What was a historical necessity in the course of David’s government is by this concrete description referred to a definite word of the Lord communicated somewhere and sometime to David, as in 1Ch_28:3 (comp. 1Ki_5:17). It is not necessary to seek a definite place, where such a divine command was at least intimated to him. What Nathan says, 17:4 ff., of David’s wars, concerns only the help which God gave him in these, but does not give prominence to the circumstance that he was by those frequent wars unfitted for building the temple. Comp. also Hengstenb. Gesch. des Reiches Gottes, 3:124.

1Ch_22:9. Behold, a son shall be born to thee. The participle ( ðåֹìָã ) is here in the sense of the future; comp. 1Ch_22:19 and 1Ki_13:2.—Who shall be a man of rest, not a man who makes rest (Jer_51:59; comp. Hitzig on this passage), but, as the sequel shows, a man who enjoys rest, who has the blessings of peace, and therefore rightly bears his name ùְׁìֹîֹä . Comp. the description of the profound peace during the reign of Solomon, 1Ki_5:4 f.—On 1Ch_22:10, comp. 1Ch_17:12 f., which prediction of Nathan is briefly repeated in our passage.

1Ch_22:11. The Lord be with thee (comp. 1Ch_22:16; 1Ch_22:18); and prosper thou; comp. 1Ch_22:13; Jos_1:8; and lastly, on ãִּáֶּø òַì , to charge any one, 1Ch_22:8 ( òָìַé ) and 11:10.

1Ch_22:12. Also the Lord will give thee wisdom and understanding; the same terms are so connected in 2Ch_2:11. The fulfilment of this prophecy, as of the similar one of Nathan (2Sa_7:11), see in 1Ki_3:5 ff.—That thou mayest keep the law of the Lord, properly, “and to keep the law,” etc. Comp., on this continuation of the verb fin. by the infin. with ìְ , Ew. § 351, c.

1Ch_22:13. If thou takest heed to fulfil (“to do”) the statutes and judgments. The language here frequently coincides with the prescriptions and promises of Deuteronomy; comp. Deu_4:1; Deu_5:1; Deu_7:4; Deu_7:11; Deu_11:32; and respecting the closing admonition: “be firm and strong,” Deu_31:6; Deu_31:8; Jos_1:7, etc.

1Ch_22:14. And behold, in my trouble, etc. So is áְּòָðְéִé to be taken here (comp. Gen_31:42, and the parallel meaning, Gen_39:2), not “in my labour,” as the Sept., Vulg., and Luther have misunderstood the phrase. The following Numbers , 100,000 talents of gold and 1,000,000 talents of silver, are only free from the suspicion of wilful exaggeration by the Chronist or an error of transcription, if we are permitted to introduce a reckoning according to other, that is, smaller units than those customary in the O. T. (comp. Introd. § 6, No. 5). If we reckon the talent ( ëִּëַּø ) of silver at 3000 shekels of silver, according to the usual Mosaic or sacred value of about 2s. 33/8d. each, it would amount to £342, and therefore 1,000,000 such silver talents would make the large sum of £342,000,000; and 100,000 talents of gold, if the gold shekel be sixteen times that of silver, would reach the still higher sum of £547,500,000. The gold and silver thus gathered by David would amount to £889,500,000, a sum incredibly high for the requirements of worship at that time. On the contrary, if we assume, with Keil, that the present shekel is not the sacred (Mosaic) but the civil so-called shekel, after the king’s weight, and that these royal shekels were only half as weighty as the others, and so equal in weight and value to the bekah or Mosaic half-shekel (Exo_38:26),—an assumption that seems to be corroborated by the comparison of 1Ki_10:17 with 2Ch_9:16; 2Ch_9:3 the sum named is reduced by at least a half. That so large a sum gathered and saved by David is not inconceivable, but has its parallel in other high sums of oriental antiquity, Movers (Die Phönizier, ii. 3, p. 45 ff.) and Keil (p. 182 f. of his Comment.) have rendered probable by examples from the history of Persia and Syria, those exceedingly rich countries adjacent to the kingdom of David; comp. the £34,000 of gold and 500,000 talents of silver which Cyrus seized in the conquest of Athens (Varro, in Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxii. 15), the 40,000 talents of uncoined gold and silver and 9000 talents of coined silver which Alexander seized in Susa alone, the 120,000 talents which the same conqueror acquired in Persepolis; likewise the colossal treasures of Syria, with its numerous great idols of solid gold, its gold shields for the servants of Hadadezer, 2Sa_8:7 ff., its gold pins as ornaments of the boots of the common soldiers of an Antiochus the Great, etc. At all events, it is hasty in Bertheau, who, besides, commits a great error in asserting that 5000 millions of thalers (about £750,000,000) would suffice to pay off the debt of all European states, to deny the credibility of the present high numbers, and suppose that they could be “nothing but the first circumlocution of the notion, ‘great, exceedingly great,’—a circumlocution that may still be heard in the mouth of those who have not reflected on the value and import of the numbers, and therefore deal quite freely with thousands and hundred thousands.” Neither the fact that Solomon’s annual revenue amounted only to 666 talents of gold, nor that the queen of Sheba made him a present of 120 talents of gold (comp. 1Ki_10:10; 1Ki_10:14; 2Ch_9:9), is sufficient to confirm this suspicion of a boastful exaggeration as the ground of the present statements. For, besides the 666 talents in gold expressly mentioned in those passages, Solomon must have had still other revenues considerably higher in their total amount (especially from tolls and tributes of the subject nations); but the value of a single gift in money and precious metals cannot in itself be compared with that of a great treasure amassed during several years. And should not David have actually contemplated the foundation of a temple treasure, of which the surplus remaining after defraying the cost of building should be kept in the sanctuary, and saved for covering the future expenses of it (as Solomon actually did after the building was finished with the money remaining over, 2Ch_5:1; 1Ki_7:51), and therefore have accumulated so vast a sum? Comp. that which is expressly reported to this effect, and see Keil’s full discussion of all questions and opinions on this matter (pp. 181–184).—And thou shalt add thereto. That Solomon followed this advice of his father, to add to the building materials, is clear from 2 Chronicles 2, where also the activity of the here (1Ch_22:15, and in 1Ch_22:2) mentioned workers in stone and wood, as well as the “skilful men in all work” ( çָëָí , to denote the ingenious mastery in the crafts of building and figuring, as in Bezaleel, Exo_31:3), is again mentioned.

1Ch_22:16. Of the gold, the silver, and the brass, and the iron, there is no number, properly, “for gold,” etc. The ìְ before the several words serves to make more prominent that which is hitherto enumerated (Ew. § 310, a). On the following ÷åּí åַòֲùֵׂä , “arise and do,” comp. Ezr_10:4.

4. Invitation to the Princes of Israel to aid in the building of the Temple: 1Ch_22:17-19.—Is not the Lord your God with you? The remembrance of God’s former grace toward the people is a ground for the invitation. That the words communicated here and in 1Ch_22:19 are David’s words to the princes, is sufficiently clear even without ìֵֹàîֹø from the foregoing åַֽéְöַå ; comp. the same immediate introduction of the address in 23:4. He hath given the inhabitants of the land into my hand, the Canaanites, Jebusites, Philistines; comp. 14:10f., Jos_2:24, as on the following: “the land is subdued,” Jos_18:1, Num_32:22; Num_32:29.

1Ch_22:19. Now give your heart and soul to seek the Lord your God; comp. 2Ch_17:4, Ezr_4:2, where the same construction of ãøùׁ with ìְ is found, whereas elsewhere it usually has the simple acc. of the object after it (16:12, 21:30, etc.).—To bring the ark of the covenant (15:1; 2Ch_5:2). . . into the house, etc. ìְ in ìַáַּéִú stands (as in Jos_4:5) for àֶì , and is not perhaps nota accusativi (Berth.), as äֵáִéà is never constructed with the acc. loci, but with àֶì , or with the acc. and ä local. For the future sense of äַðּáְðֶä , comp. on 1Ch_22:9.

Footnotes: 

áְּðִé , according to the Keri; the Kethib has áְּðåֹ , “unto Solomon his son;” but it scarcely deserves the preference, as áְּðåֹ might easily arise from ìִùְׁìֹîֹä áְðåֹ , 1Ch_22:6.

So the Masoretic text and a part of the mss. of the Sept. (A2 F X: ἐí ÷åéñß ìïõ ). But the Sept. cod. Vat, Vulg., Luther, etc.: “into your hands.”

See Mosis Maimon. Constitutiones de siclis,—quas illustravit, Jo. Esgers, Lugd. Bat. 1718, p. 19, and comp. the remarks on 2Ch_3:3 concerning the relation of the older (sacred or Mosaic) cubit to the shorter civil cubit of later times. [In the text, English money has been substituted for foreign.]