Lange Commentary - Revelation 14:1 - 14:20

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Lange Commentary - Revelation 14:1 - 14:20


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This Chapter Verse Commentaries:

SECTION SIXTH

(First Division)

The End-judgment in general. The Judgment of Anger. The Seven Vials of Anger

Rev_14:1 to Rev_16:21

A.—THE IDEAL HEAVENLY WORLD-PICTURE OF THE LAST JUDGMENT; THE ANGER-VIALS IN GENERAL

Rev_14:1 to Rev_15:8

1. The solemn Festival of the Elect. The Church Triumphant high above the Anger-Judgments of Earth

1And I looked [saw], and, lo [behold], a [the] Lamb stood [standing] on the mount Sion, and with him a hundred forty and four thousand, having [ins. his name and]his Father’s name written in their foreheads. 2And I heard a voice from [ins. the] heaven, as the [a] voice of many waters, and as the [a] voice of a [om. a] great thunder: and [ins. the voice which] I heard the voice [om. the voice —ins. was as]4 of harpers harping with their harps: 3And they sung [sing] as it were [om. as it were] a new song before the throne, and before the four beasts [living-beings], and the elders: and no man [one] could [was able to] learn that [the] song but [except] the hundred and forty and [om. and] four thousand, which 4[that] were redeemed [bought] from the earth. These are they which [who] were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are [are] they which [who] follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth [may go]. These were redeemed [bought] from among men, being the [om. being the—ins. a] first-fruits [first-fruit] unto God and to [om. to] the Lamb. 5And in their mouth was [ins. not] found no [om. no] guile [falsehood]: for they are without fault [blameless] before the throne of God [om. before the throne of God].

2. The Three Angels of the Annunciation of the Final Judgment

a. Announcement of the Final Judgment as the Eternal Gospel

6And I saw another angel fly [flying] in the midst of heaven [mid-heaven], having the [an] everlasting gospel [,] to preach [declare glad tidings ( åὐáããåëßóáé )] unto them that dwell [sit] on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred [tribe], and tongue, and people, 7Saying with a loud [great] voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that [who] made [ins. the] heaven, and [ins. the] earth, and the sea, and the [om. the] fountains of waters.

b. Announcement of the Final Judgment for the Destruction of Babylon

8And there [om. there—ins. another, second angel] followed another angel [om. another angel], saying, [ins. Fallen, fallen, is] Babylon [ins. the great] is fallen, is fallen, that great city [om. is fallen, is fallen, that great city],14 because she [om. because she—ins. who] made [gave] all [ins. the] nations [ins. to] drink of the wine of the wrath [anger or rage] of her fornication.

c. Announcement of the Final Judgment upon the Wicked

9And the [om. the—ins. another,] third angel followed them, saying with a loud [great] voice, If any man [one] worship [worshippeth] the beast [wild-beast] and his image, and receive [receiveth] his [or a] mark in [on] his forehead, or in [on] 10his hand, The same [he also] shall drink of the wine of the wrath [anger] of God, which is [hath been] poured out without mixture into [or mingled unmixed in] the cup of his indignation [wrath ( ὀñãÞ )]; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the [om. the] holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: 11And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up [om. up] for ever and ever [into ages of ages]: and they have no [not] rest [ins. by] day nor [and by] night, who worship the beast [wild-beast] and his image, and whosoever [if any one] receiveth the mark of his name. 12Here is the patience [endurance] of the saints: [,] here are they that [om. here are they that—ins. who] keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

d. Deliverance concerning the Godly

13And I heard a voice from [ins. the] heaven saying unto me [om. unto me], Write, Blessed are the dead which [who] die in the Lord from [om. from] henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may [shall] rest from their labours; and [for] their works do [om. do] follow [ins. with] them.

3. The Three Angels of the Beginning Execution of the Final Judgment

a. The Judgment, or Harvest, of the Earth itself. The Chief Harvest, or the Harvest of the Blessed.

(Mat_3:12 a. Mat_13:43.)

14And I looked [saw] and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat [sitting] like unto the [a] Son of man, having on [upon] his head a golden crown ( óôÝöáíïí ), and in his hand a sharp sickle. 15And another angel came [ins. forth] out of the temple, crying with a loud [great] voice to him that sat on [the one sitting upon] the cloud, Thrust in [Send forth ( ðÝìöïí )] thy sickle, and reap: for the time [hour] is come for thee [om. for thee] to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe 16[has become dry]. And he that sat on [the one sitting upon] the cloud thrust in [cast ( ἔâáëåí )] his sickle on [upon] the earth; and the earth was reaped.

b. The Harvest of Anger, or the Judgment upon the Wicked (Mat_3:12; Mat_13:42).

17And another angel came [ins. forth] out of the temple which is in [ins. the] heaven, he also having a sharp sickle. 18And another angel came [ins. forth] out from [of] the altar, which had [om. which had—ins. having] power [authority ( ἐîïõóßá )] over [ins. the] fire; and cried with a loud cry [great voice] to him that had [the one having] the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in [Send forth] thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe. 19And the angel thrust in [cast] his sickle into [unto] the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it [om. it] into the great winepress of the wrath [anger] of God. 20And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came [ins. forth] out of the winepress, even [om. even] unto the horse [om. horse] bridles [ins. of the horses], by the space [or to the distance] of a thousand and six hundred furlongs [stadia].

See Rev_15:1 ff for more analysis on Revelation 14

Footnotes:
 

Rev_14:1. [Crit. Eds. give ôü , with à . A. B*. C.; it is omitted by P. 1, 28, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:1. Instead of the Rec. ἑóôçêüò , à . A. C. [P. 79] give ἑóôüò . [B*. gives ἑóôþò .—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:1. His against the Rec. [Lange reads áὐôïῦ twice, but ὄíïìá only once. Alf., Treg., Tisch., rend ôὸ ὄíïìá áὐôïῦ êáὶ ôὸ ὄíïìá ôïῦ ðáôñὸò áὐôïῦ with à . A. B*. C.; 7, 16, 98, with Lange, omit the second ôὸ ὄíïìá ; P. and 1 read as Rec.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:2. [Alf., Treg., Tisch., read êáὶ ἡ öùíὴ ἣí ἤêïõóá ὡò with à . A. B*. C.; P. reads, êáὶ öùíὴí ἤêïõóá ὡò .—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:3. The reading of à . B*. [P.], etc.; A. C., etc., read ὡò ᾡäÞí . [Tisch., as Lange, omits; Alf. and Treg. bracket.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:4. [Lange and Tisch. (8th Ed.) read ὑðÜãῃ with à . B*. P.; Lach., Alf., Treg., Tisch. (1859) ὑðÜãåé with A. C. 7, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:5. This clause is wanting in the best codices. [So modern Crit. Eds. with à . A. B*. C. P. 1, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:6. [Lange, Treg., Tisch., real ἄëëïí with à oc. A. C. P., Vulg., etc.; Gb. omits with à *. B*.; Alf. brackets.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:6. [The pointing is that of the Vulg., Treg., Lillie, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:6. Codd. A. C. [ à . P.] give ἐðß before êáèῃìÝíïõò .

Rev_14:6. [Modern Crit. Eds. give êáèçìÝíïõò with à . B*. C. P. Vulg., etc. Lach. (min.), êáôïéêïῦíôáò with A.14, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:7. [Tisch. (8th Ed.) gives ôÞí with à . B*.; Lach. Alf., Treg., Tisch. (1859) omit with A. C. P. 1, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:8. [Crit. Eds. give äåýôåñïò in acc. with almost all the Codd.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:8. [Modern Crit. Eds. read Ἔðåóåí ἔðåóåí Âáâõëὼí ἡ ìåãÜëç ; the insertion of ἡ ðüëéò is without authority—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:8. In accordance with A. C., etc., . [ Ὅôé is given only by 1 and 36.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:8. [For the rendering anger see Note 29 below. It is, however, exceedingly questionable whether, by reason of its connection with wine and fornication, èõìüò has not, in this place, a peculiar idiomatic force, and should not be translated rage. See Note 29 below.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:9. In accordance with A. B*. C [P.] etc.

Rev_14:9. [Crit. Eds. generally read áὐôïῖò with Cypr.; Lange reads áὐôῷ with A.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:10. [The E. V. presents the idiomatic, though not the literal, translation of the Greek. Alford remarks: “From the almost universal custom of mixing wine with water, the common term for preparing wine, putting it into the cup, came to be êåñÜííõìé ; hence the apparent contradiction in terms here.”—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:10. [Treg. and Tisch. (8th Ed.) give ἀããÝëùí ἁãßùí (without ôῶí ) with à . C. P., etc.; B*. prefixes ôῶí ; Tisch. (1859), Alt. read ôῶí ἀããÝëùí with A.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:12. The second ὧäå is unfounded. [Crit. Eds. omit with à . A. B*. C. P. Vulg., etc.: it is given by 1. 7, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:13. [Lach., Alf., Treg., Tisch., omit ìïé with à . A. B*. C. P. Am., Fuld., etc.; Lange gives it with 1, 28, 36, Clem., etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:13. Crit. Eds. give ἀíáðáÞóïíôáé with à . A. C. (B*. and 1 also give ἀíáðáýóïíôáé ); P. gives ἀíáðáýóùíôáé .—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:13. [Lach., Alf., Tree, Tisch. (8th Ed.) give ãÜñ with à . A. C. P. Vulg., etc.; Lange and Tisch. (1859) read äἐ with B*.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:15. Óïé is omitted by the best Codd. [by à . A. B*. C. P. Vulg.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:18. The article is omitted by à . B*. [P.]; the omission probably originated in an incorrect exegetical apprehension of the passage. [Alf., Treg., Tisch. (8th Ed.), omit; Lach., Lange, and Tisch. (1859) give it with A. C.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:18. The reading ἤêìáóåí ἡ óôáöõëὴ ôῆò ãῆò , in acc. with B*., etc. The easier reading undoubtedly has more authorities in its favor. But why is this? The question is whether that which is difficult is significant. [Crit. Eds. generally give ἤêìáóáí áἱ óôáöõëáἱ áὐôῆò , with à . A. C. P. 1, Vulg., etc.; Tisch. (1859) instead of áὐôῆò reads ôῆò ãῆò with B*. 7, etc.—E. R. C.]

Rev_14:9. The remarkable reading ôὸí ìÝãáí ; the most obvious explanation is that ëçíüò is gen. commun. On the change of gender in the adjective see Winer, De Wette, Düsterd. [The reading is supported by A. B*. C. P. 6, 8, etc.; à . 7, etc., give ôὴí ìåãÜëçí .—E. R. C.]