18. καρπὸς δὲ δικαιοσύνης κ.τ.λ. δικαιοσύνης gen. of apposition, the fruit which consists of righteousness. The connecting thought between this and the preceding paragraph centres in δικαιοσύνη, which is regarded as the supreme aim and crown of the Christian life: comp. 2Ti 4:8 ὁ τῆς δικαιοσύνης στέφανος, and Mat 5:6, where δικαιοσύνη occupies the central and culminating point of the beatitudes. In 4Ma 1:18 δικαιοσύνη is noted as one of the ὀδέαι of σοφία. Bitter zeal and heavenly wisdom were alike sowing seed and the harvest was drawing on. But only for those who are now making peace (comp. μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί Mat 5:9) is the fruit of righteousness being sown in peace. For the zealots whose policy was resistance and war there would be a harvest of contention and hatred. Here too wisdom was justified by its results (ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῆς). Zeal came to a bitter end at the siege of Jerusalem, while the true faith of Christ won its victory of peace.